35 respiratory system

The upper portion of the lung


The lower portion of the lungs


Route by which blood is delivered to the alveoli for gas exchange

Pulmonary circulation

Beginswith the bronchial artery that provides the passage way of the lungs with blood to meet nutritional needs and ends when the venous blood enters the pulmonary veins

Bronchial circulation

The preferred route for air to enter the respiratory tract

Nasal passage

Nasal passage function?

Filter inspired air

Also known as the voice box


Connects the mouth and the lower parts of the respiratory tract that serves as a passageway for inspired air into the larynx and ingested food passing into the
digestive system


what are the 4 parts of the larynx?

Thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, epiglottis, and glottis

Known as the windpipe. Is a tube composed of connective tissue mucosa and smooth muscle
supported by c shape rings of cartilage that extends into the bronchi


Numerous sac liked thin walled structures that is the primary site for gas exchange


Bronchi that branches off into smaller diameter tubes become _____

Terminal bronchioles

Type II alveolar cells produce a phospholipid called _______?


_______ coats the inner surface of the alveoli, reduces the surface tension of the pulmonary fluid, allows gas exchange, and prevents the collapse of airways


How much alveoli does EACH lung contain?

300 million

The process of gas exchange


The exchange of gases between the inhaled air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries

External respiration

Exchange of gases at a cellular level between tissue cells and blood in the systemic capillaries

Internal respiration

An allergy to shellfish is a likely allergy to ______?


Diverticulosis forms in the _____?

Descending colon

The movement of gases across the alveolar capillary membrane from areas of high concentration to areas of lower concentration


Movement of gases into and out of the lung


Monitors the pattern of breathing and prevent overexpansion of tissues

Lung stretch receptors

Monitors levels of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and pH of the blood


When the interior of the tubercle becomes soft and cheese like as a result of decreased perfusion is called _____?


When tissue dies and turns into a liquid or semiliquid state

Liquefaction necrosis

The preferred screening for tuberculosis

Mantoux screen test

How is a TB diagnosis confirmed?

Chest x-ray and sputum specimen

A painful condition that is sharp and stabbing in nature that arises from inflammation of the pleura or sac that encases the lung is ___?


The collapse of a lung or portion of the lung


_____ develops when a blood borne substance lodges in the branch of a pulmonary artery and obstructs flow.

Pulmonary embolism

A common source of Pulmonary embolism is ____-?

Deep vein thrombosis

Clients at risk for DVT and PE are treated with?


A life threatening condition characterized by a rapid shift of fluid from plasma into the pulmonary interstitial tissue and the alveoli is called ___?

acute pulmonary edema

Blood tinged sputum is called ____


The condition characterized by intermittent airway obstruction in response to a variety of stimuli


Caused by substances outside the body that precipitate the asthma response such as pollen, house dust, or food additives

Extrinsic asthma

Diagnosed when no extrinsic factor can be identified and can be a result of internal factors such as emotional stress, exercise, or fatigue.

Intrinsic asthma

Asthma attack that does not respond to treatment

Status asthmaticus

True or False

COPD or COLD has no known cure
True False


Chronic bronchitits and emphysema patients have a long history of ____

Cigarette smoking

The fourth leading cause of death


Inflammation of the bronchial tree accompanied by hypersecretion of mucus


Respiratory therapy and supplemental oxygen are examples of treatment for ___


Complex and destructive lung disease wherein air accumulates in the tissues of the lungs and the airways lose their elasticity and the walls thicken


Emphysema devolps slowly over a period of years with early onset symptoms such as?

Morning cough and clear sputum

Chronic dilation of the bronchi that may be caused by disorders such as pulmonary TB, chronic upper repiratory tract infections, cystic fibrosis.


Percussion and postural drainage are used to aid in the removal of secretions for ___?


To provide energy for breathing a diet high in ______ should be provided.

Carbohydrate and high calorie

The primary muscles of respiration


Oxygenated blood is sent to the body via the _______ and ______?

Aorta and arterial network

Process of oxygenated air

1. nose 2.Pharynx 3. larynx 4. trachea 5. bronchus 6. alveoli

Normal breathing


Cessation of breathing, possibly temporary in nature


Labored or difficulty breathing


Abnormally slow breathing


Abnormally rapid breathing


Difficulty/discomfort with breathing in any upright sitting or standing position


Without oxygen


Lack of adequate oxygen


Lack of oxygen in the blood due to respiratory disorders


Bluish discoloring around the mouth

circumoral cyanosis

heard over the anterior of the chest near the sternum and around the posterior scapula that have a medium pitch sound and intensity with inspiration and expiration being equal in duration

Bronchovesicular sounds

Soft, low pitched soundsbest heard during inspiration and may be audible during expiration and is also heard over the majority of the lungs

Vesicular sounds

Abnormal breath sounds are called ___?

Adventitious breath sounds

Dry high pitched, crackling, popping, sound, with short duration

Fine crackle (rale)

Moist low pitched crackling, gurgling, long duration

Coarse crackle (coarse rale)

Low pitched snoring

Sonorous wheezing

High pitched musical

Sibilant wheeze

Creaking, grating

Pleural friction rub



Aspiration, oversedation, and inadequate ventilation can also cause ____?


Inflammation of the bronchioles and alveoli accompanied by consolidation, or solidification of exudates in the lungs


An infection of the lung tissue by mycobacterium tuberculosis

Pulmonary tuberculosis

risk factors for pneumonia

immobility, depressed cough reflex, CVA, alterations in resp. function (ex. COPD), other deibilitating factors like DM and CHF

what is often the presenting complaint for a client with pneumonia?

high grade fever of sudden onsetelderly may have low grade fever

In pneumonia pain occurs as a result of:

irritation of the pleura lying adjacent to the affected alveoli

what are symptomes of TB?

low grade fevernight sweatspersistent coughhemoptysisenlarged lymph nodes