The upper portion of the lung
The lower portion of the lungs
Route by which blood is delivered to the alveoli for gas exchange
Beginswith the bronchial artery that provides the passage way of the lungs with blood to meet nutritional needs and ends when the venous blood enters the pulmonary veins
The preferred route for air to enter the respiratory tract
Nasal passage function?
Filter inspired air
Also known as the voice box
Connects the mouth and the lower parts of the respiratory tract that serves as a passageway for inspired air into the larynx and ingested food passing into the
what are the 4 parts of the larynx?
Thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, epiglottis, and glottis
Known as the windpipe. Is a tube composed of connective tissue mucosa and smooth muscle
supported by c shape rings of cartilage that extends into the bronchi
Numerous sac liked thin walled structures that is the primary site for gas exchange
Bronchi that branches off into smaller diameter tubes become _____
Type II alveolar cells produce a phospholipid called _______?
_______ coats the inner surface of the alveoli, reduces the surface tension of the pulmonary fluid, allows gas exchange, and prevents the collapse of airways
How much alveoli does EACH lung contain?
The process of gas exchange
The exchange of gases between the inhaled air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries
Exchange of gases at a cellular level between tissue cells and blood in the systemic capillaries
An allergy to shellfish is a likely allergy to ______?
Diverticulosis forms in the _____?
The movement of gases across the alveolar capillary membrane from areas of high concentration to areas of lower concentration
Movement of gases into and out of the lung
Monitors the pattern of breathing and prevent overexpansion of tissues
Lung stretch receptors
Monitors levels of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and pH of the blood
When the interior of the tubercle becomes soft and cheese like as a result of decreased perfusion is called _____?
When tissue dies and turns into a liquid or semiliquid state
The preferred screening for tuberculosis
Mantoux screen test
How is a TB diagnosis confirmed?
Chest x-ray and sputum specimen
A painful condition that is sharp and stabbing in nature that arises from inflammation of the pleura or sac that encases the lung is ___?
The collapse of a lung or portion of the lung
_____ develops when a blood borne substance lodges in the branch of a pulmonary artery and obstructs flow.
A common source of Pulmonary embolism is ____-?
Deep vein thrombosis
Clients at risk for DVT and PE are treated with?
A life threatening condition characterized by a rapid shift of fluid from plasma into the pulmonary interstitial tissue and the alveoli is called ___?
acute pulmonary edema
Blood tinged sputum is called ____
The condition characterized by intermittent airway obstruction in response to a variety of stimuli
Caused by substances outside the body that precipitate the asthma response such as pollen, house dust, or food additives
Diagnosed when no extrinsic factor can be identified and can be a result of internal factors such as emotional stress, exercise, or fatigue.
Asthma attack that does not respond to treatment
True or False
COPD or COLD has no known cure
Chronic bronchitits and emphysema patients have a long history of ____
The fourth leading cause of death
Inflammation of the bronchial tree accompanied by hypersecretion of mucus
Respiratory therapy and supplemental oxygen are examples of treatment for ___
Complex and destructive lung disease wherein air accumulates in the tissues of the lungs and the airways lose their elasticity and the walls thicken
Emphysema devolps slowly over a period of years with early onset symptoms such as?
Morning cough and clear sputum
Chronic dilation of the bronchi that may be caused by disorders such as pulmonary TB, chronic upper repiratory tract infections, cystic fibrosis.
Percussion and postural drainage are used to aid in the removal of secretions for ___?
To provide energy for breathing a diet high in ______ should be provided.
Carbohydrate and high calorie
The primary muscles of respiration
Oxygenated blood is sent to the body via the _______ and ______?
Aorta and arterial network
Process of oxygenated air
1. nose 2.Pharynx 3. larynx 4. trachea 5. bronchus 6. alveoli
Cessation of breathing, possibly temporary in nature
Labored or difficulty breathing
Abnormally slow breathing
Abnormally rapid breathing
Difficulty/discomfort with breathing in any upright sitting or standing position
Lack of adequate oxygen
Lack of oxygen in the blood due to respiratory disorders
Bluish discoloring around the mouth
heard over the anterior of the chest near the sternum and around the posterior scapula that have a medium pitch sound and intensity with inspiration and expiration being equal in duration
Soft, low pitched soundsbest heard during inspiration and may be audible during expiration and is also heard over the majority of the lungs
Abnormal breath sounds are called ___?
Adventitious breath sounds
Dry high pitched, crackling, popping, sound, with short duration
Fine crackle (rale)
Moist low pitched crackling, gurgling, long duration
Coarse crackle (coarse rale)
Low pitched snoring
High pitched musical
Pleural friction rub
Aspiration, oversedation, and inadequate ventilation can also cause ____?
Inflammation of the bronchioles and alveoli accompanied by consolidation, or solidification of exudates in the lungs
An infection of the lung tissue by mycobacterium tuberculosis
risk factors for pneumonia
immobility, depressed cough reflex, CVA, alterations in resp. function (ex. COPD), other deibilitating factors like DM and CHF
what is often the presenting complaint for a client with pneumonia?
high grade fever of sudden onsetelderly may have low grade fever
In pneumonia pain occurs as a result of:
irritation of the pleura lying adjacent to the affected alveoli
what are symptomes of TB?
low grade fevernight sweatspersistent coughhemoptysisenlarged lymph nodes