Crisis of Reconstruction

treason

northerners accused southerners of this

Susan B. Anthony

social reformer who campaigned for women's rights, the temperance,
and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association

President Pro Tempore

Officer of the Senate selected by the majority party to act as chair
in the absence of the vice president

peonage

partial slavery

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Co-founder of the Women suffrage movement & opponent of the 15th
amendmentpeonagepartial slavery

Edwin Stanton

Impeached because he opposed Radical Congressional Reconstruction;
refused to be fired from his job leading the impeachment of the president

Civil Disabilities

losing your rights as a citizen, condition of former Confederates
according to Radical Republicans

Compromise of 1877

ended reconstruction; supposedly Hayes was given presidency in
exchange for removing the army from the South; probably didn't exist

Whiskey Ring

Group of Republican politicians redirected tax money from alcohol;
many people close to Grant convicted; over 110 people involved; Secret
investigation & raids involved because of Grant's association

Samuel Tilden

Prosecuted Boss Tweed; State Attorney General; eventually ran against
Hayes for president

Credit Mobilier

Union Pacific Railroad made dummy company to bid on contracts;
Investigated by a newspaper & mostly Southern Republicans involved

Boss Tweed

PLAYRadical RepublicansClick card to see definition

Rutherford B. Hayes

president during the Panic of 1873; had to send in army to deal with strikes

Panic of 1873

Happened before the Long Depression; railroads lost funding from
banks; tons of strikes; rail traffic almost paralyzed; president had
to send in army

Santo Domingo

Grant wanted to annex because of sugar; sent private secretary for
treaty but didn't consult anyone - Senate refused to ratify treaty;
hurt Grant in terms of political negotiating ability

Scalawag

Southern white republicans; former Whigs; part of anti-confederacy
movement; considered as traitors to the South

Election of 1868

US Grant vs. Horatio Seymour; democrats had militant platform, argued
that reconstruction was usurpation of power, wanted to get rid of
"negro supremacy"; Grant won overwhelmingly

Fifteenth amendment

guarantees the right to vote to all citizens regardless of race,
color, or previous servitude; women's suffrage not happy

Military Reconstruction Act of 1867

10 southern states divided into 5 military districts with a Union
general over it

Impeachment

Congress tried to set Andrew Johnson up for failure by making
non-constitutional laws; eventually charged him with high crimes &
misdemeanors but he escaped without being impeached

Tenure in Office Act

1867; if congress has to approve your appointment then congress has
to approve firing you; not constitutional

Sharecropping

sharecroppers always in debt; worked the land but had to borrow tons
of money for necessities throughout the year

Oliver Howard

Appointed by Radical Republicans to run Freedmen's Bureau

National Union Party

Republicans that didn't agree with radicals & democrats; doomed
because of democrats; made it easier for Radical Republicans to be elected

Thaddeus Stevens

Worked with Sumner as leader of the Radical Republicans

Freedmen's Bureau Bill

Bureau for refugees, freedmen, and abandoned lands; issued food, gave
clothing & medical, relocated people; supposed to be around for 1
year but stayed for 4

Charles Sumner

One leader of Radical Republicans; hated south; abolitionist; made
joint committee on reconstruction

Wade-Davis Bill

required 50% of the number of 1860 voters to take an "iron
clad" oath of allegiance (swearing they had never voluntarily
aided the rebellion); required a state constitutional convention
before the election of state officials; pocket vetoed by Lincoln

Radical Republicans

Want to punish Southern radicals physically & mentally; trying to
get banking and industry going in the south; committed to helping the
freed slaves

Pocket Veto

Used by Lincoln for Wade-Davis Bill

Confiscation

Union army took land from plantations and gave it to slaves; made
huge problems during recovery of land

Tenant Farming

system of farming in which a person rents land to farm from a planter

Mutual Aid Societies

groups that pooled resources to support members of their group
through medical care, widows & orphans, work related injuries

Liberal Republicans

In 1872, Republican reformers, alarmed by the corruption and scandals
in the Grant administration, organized this branch of the Republican
Party and nominated Horace Greeley for president. They were
laissez-faire liberals who opposed legislation that benefited any
particular group

U.S. Grant

president after Andrew Johnson; beat out Horatio Seymour & Horace
Greeley; had multiple scandals; too trusting

Horatio Seymour

lost to Grant in 1868 election; backed by democrats

Horace Greeley

lost to Grant in 1872 election; backed by Liberal republicans &
democrats; newspaper guy

thirteenth amendment

first of reconstruction amendments; no slavery or forced labor unless
it's punishment for a crime; congress has power to enforce; ratified
December 1865

Andrew Johnson

worked with radical republicans; in camp of yeoman farmer; wanted
emancipation to take slaves from plantation owners; agreed that states
never legally left; made new reconstruction plan

10 percent plan

Made by Lincoln; pushed for emancipation of the slaves; proclamation
of Amnesty & Reconstruction; didn't consult congress; pardon to
all but highest ranking military & civilian Confederate officers;
when 10% of voting population in 1860 election had taken oath of
loyalty & est. a gov, it would be recognized

Black Codes

manipulated rights to say blacks have rights, but not actually give
them; created to reestablish white dominance

Jay Cooke

owned a banking company that over-invested in the Pacific Railroad;
declared bankruptcy & set off a domino effect that started the
Long Depression

Treaty of Washington

International tribunal set up to decide if Britain had to pay for
damage caused by Confederate ships it made; one of first steps in us
becoming more friendly with the British

Fenian

Irish brotherhood that hated the British & wanted to invade
Canada to make Ireland be independent; raided the Canadian border; we
stationed troops to guard against them

carpetbaggers

Northern whites in the South; usually soldiers that had decided to
stay in the south

Enforcement Acts of 1870 & 1871

tried to stop KKK in the South; didn't work in the long run, just
temporary band-aid; republicans lose interest because they don't need
the black vote

Ku Klux Klan

made first major appearance during election of 1868; tried to keep
voters away from the polls; tried to stop them but eventually gave up

Civil Rights Act

made is so freedmen had rights as citizens; equal protection under
law; offered explicit punishment for South if they violated those acts

fourteenth amendment

defined all native-born or naturalized people as citizens; if
southern state refused to give them the vote they would lose an equal
proportion of congressional seats

Yeomen whites

middle class; had a dozen slaves at most; hoping to get ahead - left
out of politics