Ethics, sexuality and death

What is an argument?

a reasoning process from one statement to another by means of
accepted logical rules

A claim is...

A declarative sentence

____ is not a conclusion indicator

...which follows the fact that...

A premise is a

Supporting claim

A conclusion is a

Supported claim

A sound argument

Is valid and has true premises

a categorical imperative is an objective universal principle because

it applies to all rational beings independent of their desires

A hypothetical imperative is a command that

we have reason to follow because it serves our desires

Kant calls human beings legislators because

The universal law has its source in our capacity to reason

The first formulation of the categorical imperative reads as follows

Never act in such a way that you could not also will that your maxim
should be a universal law

The second formulation of the imperative reads as follows

Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that
of another always, as an end and never as means only

Kant claims that the ground of a possible categorical imperative
could lie only in something that exist of which

In itself had absolute worth

According to Kant those designated as 'persons' are

All rational beings

What does it mean to be an end in itself?

It means to be of objective, not subjective worth

According to Kant moral agents are those people who

Act as law-givers to themselves

The realm of ends is

A systematic union of rational beings through common objective laws

According to Lesier

The laws of nature are purely descriptive and therefore do not
prescribe sexual behaviour

Lesier claims that

Many forms of behaviour are praised by virtue of their being uncommon
or abnormal in the implied sense

In his reasoning on the morality of homosexuality,Leseir

Rejects the proposition that a given organ or instrument has one and
only one proper function

Leseir argues against the view that

Sexual organs must be used for their 'original' function of a procreation

Leiser endorse the position according to which

Any use of organ that is contrary to its primary function is morally reprehensible

According to Leiser

Whatever is unnatural is synonyms with bad,wrong or perverse

Leiser's article presents

A critical evaluation of the unnaturalness argument through the
examination of four common meanings of natural and unnatural

In the conclusion of his article Leiser says that the advocates of
the unnaturalness argument

Will require some more satisfactory connection between the
wrongfulness of homosexuality and it's alleged unnaturalness

Leiser believes that

There is nothing immoral about interfering with nature

Leiser argues by


Levin's position on homosexuality is

Abnormal Leads to unhappiness Should not be

Levin does not consider homosexuality


What is meant by unnatural,?

Contrary to the laws of nature Whatever is artificial
or (Wo)man made Whatever is abnormal or uncommon
Whatever involves the use of an organ or instrument contrary to
its proper function