Medical Terminology Language Roots

Ab-

Away from (abduction = move away from axis / midline)

Acou-

Having to do with hearing

Ad-

Towards to (adduction = move towards axis / midline)

Adip- / adipo- / lip- / lipo-

Pertaining to fat

Alb-

Appearing white or of lesser pigment

Ambi-

Of both sides

An-

Without having, not, less

Ante-

Before, in front of

Anti-

Against opposite

Arthro-

Pertaining to a joint or articulation

Auri-

Ears

Auto-

Pertaining to self

Bi-

Having two

Brachy-

Something short or fast

Brady-

Something long or slow

Bucc- / bucco-

Cheek

Burs- / burso-

Bursa (fluid filled sac at joint / articulation)

Chondrio- / chondro-

Cartilage

Circum-

To go around

Col-/ colono-/ colo-

Colon, large intestine

Contra-

Against

Costo- / costal-

Ribs

Cyt-/ cyto-

Cell/cellular

Derm-/ dermato-

Having to do with the skin/integument

Di-

Twice or twofold

Dia-

Going through, or completely

Duodeno-

Duodenum

Dys-

Bad or difficult

Ect-/ ecto-

Outer/outside

Endo-

Within/internal

Entero-

Small intestine

Epi-

Open/covering/upon

Erythro-

Of or pertaining to red blood cells

Etio-

The cause of

Exo-

Outside, outer

Extra-

Outside of, beyond, in greater amount

Fibr-/ fibro-

Fiber, fibrous

Gast-/ gastr-/ gastro-

Stomach (gastric)

Gloss-/ glosso-

Tongue

Hem-/ hemo-/ hemato

Blood

Hemi-

Half of, one half

Hep-/ hepatico-/ hepato

Liver

Hetero-

Different, opposite

Hist-/ histiol-/ Histo-

Tissue(s)

Homo-

The same

Hydr-/ hydro-

Water

Hyper-

Extra or high in amount, more than, above normal

Hypo-

Lesser or low in amount, less than, below normal

Infra-

Below, beneath, lesser

Inter-

Between, among

Intra-

Within, inside of

Iso-

Same in amount, equivalent, normal

Juxta-

Near, close, next to

Karyo-

Nucleus, nuclear

Kin-/ kino-/ kinesi-/ kinesio-

Movement

Lacrim-/ lacrimo-

Tear(s)

Latero-

Lateral, to the side of

Leuk-/ leuko-

White

Macro-

Larger, longer

Mal-

Bad, improper, awful

Meg-/ mega-

Large

Mes-/ meso-

Middle

Micro-

Smaller, shorter, tiny

Mono-

Singular, one, one type of

Morph-/morpho-

Shape

Multi-

Many, plural

Myel/ myelo-

Bone marrow, spinal cord

Myo-

Relating to muscle

Myring-/ myringo-

Eardrum

Naso-

Pertaining to the nose

Necro-

Dead or decaying

Neo-

New or young, recent

Nephr-/ nephro-

Relating to the kidneys

Neur-/ neuri-/ neuro-

Pertaining to nerves

Node

Knot of tissue

Oculo- / ocular-

Pertaining to the eyes, usually with the sense of vision

Odont- / odonto-

Teeth

Olfact-

Having to do with olfaction, sense of smell

Ophthalm-

Having to do with the eyes (organ)

Optic-

Having to do with the eyes, usually with the sense of vision

Oss- / osseous / osteo-

bony, having to do with bones/bone cells

Oto- / otic �

Having to do with the ear

Ova- / ovar-

Pertaining to ovary/ovaries

Para-

Near, beside, apart from

Patho-

Disease (suffix is "-pathy")

Per-

Throughout

Peri-

Around

Phren- / phreni- / phreno-

Diaphragm

Pleur- / pleuro-

Rib, lung pleura

Pro-

In front of, before, prior to

Proto-

Prior to, before

Quad-

Having four

Rect- / recto-

Rectum

Ren- / reno-

Kidney

Reticul- / reticulo-

Net

Sarco-

Muscle

Sept-

To divide (ex: septum, septate)

Spondyl- / spondylo-

Vertebra

Sub-

Under, less than (similar to "hypo-")

Syno-

Pertaining to joints, particularly synovial joints

Tachy-

Fast

Tri-

Having three

Tympano-

Eardrum

Uni-

Having one

Ur- / uro-

Urine

Vas- / vaso- / vasc- / vasculo-

Pertaining to blood vessels

#NAME?

Pain

#NAME?

Type of cell

#NAME?

Removal of

#NAME?

In the shape of

#NAME?

Recording or image of

#NAME?

Instrument for recording or imaging

#NAME?

Pertaining to

#NAME?

Inflammatory condition of

#NAME?

Tissue, structure

#NAME?

The study of

#NAME?

Tumor of

#NAME?

Abnormal condition of

#NAME?

Disease of

#NAME?

Irrational fear of

#NAME?

Paralysis of

#NAME?

Instrument for viewing of

#NAME?

Visualization or investigation of

Abdomen

Belly

Accessory

Supplemental or additional item

Acid

Related to lowering pH, increase in hydronium ions

Acoustic

Pertaining to hearing or the ears

Acquired

A condition that has not been inherited from one's parents

Acromial

Relating to the point of the shoulder

Acute

Severe or initial condition

Afferent

To carry towards

Alimentary

Pertaining to food, nourishment, and nutrition

Alkaline

Related to raising pH, increase in hydroxyl ions

Alveolar

Pertaining to the airsacs in the lungs (alveoli)

Anterior

Pertaining to the front of

Arterial

Pertaining to the arteries taking blood away from the heart (afferent)

Auditory

Having to do with hearing

Axillary

Pertaining to the armpit

Basal

Similar to basilar, can be as a layer

Basilar

Near the base or bottom of a structure

Benign

Not cancerous, not harmful, innocuous

Bronchial

Pertaining to the bronchi of lungs

Capillary

Tiny blood vessel network connecting arterioles (the smallest artery
branches) & venules (smallest branches of veins)

Cardio

Pertaining to the heart

Chronic

Long lasting or permanent condition

Clavicular

Relating to the clavicle

Colonic

Pertaining to the large intestine

Coronary

Pertaining to the heart

Cranial

Pertaining to the bones of the skull surrounding the brain / towards
the head

Deep

Farther internal or away from the surface

Dental

Pertaining to teeth

Dermal

Pertaining to the deep layer of skin (dermis)

Distal

Farther to the trunk / axis of the body, as on a limb

Duct

A walled passageway that carries fluid from one place to another

Efferent

To carry away from

Enteric

Pertaining to the small intestine

Esophageal

Pertaining to the esophagus

Facial

Pertaining to the bones of the skull creating / reaching the face

Femoral

Pertaining to the thigh / upper leg

Fetal

Pertaining to a developing fetus

Foramen

Opening or hole

Foramina

A small opening or hole

Frontal

Pertaining to the front of the skull

Gastric / gastro

Pertaining to the stomach

Gingival

Relating to the gums (gingiva)

Glomerulo

Pertaining to the kidney glomeruli which filter blood

Hemato / hemo

Pertaining to the blood

Hepatic / hepato

Pertaining to the liver (hepar=liver)

Inferior

Underneath, towards the bottom, away from the top

Inguinal

Pertaining to the inguinal region

Labia / labial

Lips or pertaining to the lips

Laryngeal

Pertaining to the larynx

Lateral

Farther away from the middle/axis

Leuko

Pertaining to white blood cells

Ligament

Connective tissue band connecting bone to bone

Lingual

Pertaining to the tongue

Lobe

Part of an organ separated by a groove or membrane or its shape

Lympho

Pertaining to the lymph organs (lymph nodes and spleen)

Malignant

Invasive, cancerous, loss of cell cycle control and regulation, harmful

Mastoidal

Pertaining to the mastoid process of the temporal bone

Meatus

An opening or passagway

Medial

Closer to the middle/axis

Nares

Nostrils

Nasal

Nose

Occipital

Pertaining to the back of the skull

Ocular

Pertaining to the eye