Intro Chapters






primary amine





The base composition of DNA varies from one species of bacteria to
another. Which of the following ratios would you expect to remain
constant in the DNA regardless of species?
a. (pyrimidine + purine)/deoxyribose
b. adenine/guanine
c. (adenine+cytosine)/deoxyribose
d. pyramidine/ribose


What's the difference between a community and an ecosystem?

an ecosystem also includes the abiotic factors

What is the molecule of life?

DNA - gives codes to make everything our body needs - especially proteins.


proteins or enzymes, lose their specific shape, and changes its function

Are most carbohydrates are hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

hydrophilic is a primary property of carbohydrates

The movement of water to the top of a tall tree is best explained by
a. transpiration and cohesion
b. root and stem pressure
c. barometric pressure
d. capillary acton
e. gravitational flow

transpiration and cohesion

Unsaturated Fatty Acid

fatty acid containing one or more double bonds - not saturated with
Hydrogen (good for you)

Saturated Fatty Acid

fatty acid containing only single bonds - full of hydrogens (not as
good for you)

Controlled experiement

two experiments are conducted that only differ by one variable

What are the four eukaryotic kingdoms?

The four eukaryotic
kingdoms are animalia, plantae, fungi, and protista.

all organisms expect prokaryotes are in what domain?


The number of domains favored by most biologists


the number of kingdoms favored by most biologists

four to eight

Polar molecule

A molecule in which the overall charge is unevenly distributed.

Name the 4 properties of water which contribute to Earth's
suitability for life.

1. Cohesive behavior2. Ability to moderate temperature3.
Expansion upon freezing4. Versatility as a solvent

Nonpolar Covalent Bond

A covalent bond between 2 atoms of the same element in which the
electrons are shared equally (or nearly equally) because the two atoms
have very similar electronegativity.

sulfur is in the same column of the periodic table as oxygen, but has
electronegativity similar to carbon. Compared to water molecules,
molecules of H2S

will not form hydrogen bonds with each other

Organic chemistry is a science based on the study ofA)
functional groups.B) vital forces interacting with
matter.C) carbon compounds.D) water and its interaction
with other kinds of molecules.E) inorganic compounds.


Early 19th-century scientists believed that living organisms differed
from nonliving thingsas a result of possessing a ?life force?
that could create organic molecules from inorganicmatter. The
term given to this belief isA) organic synthesis.B)
vitalism.C) mechanism.D) organic evolution.E)
inorganic synthesis


Which of the following people was the first to synthesize an organic
compound, urea, frominorganic starting materials?A)
Stanley MillerB) Jakob BerzeliusC) Friedrich
WohlerD) Hermann KolbeE) August Kekul´┐Ż


How many electron pairs does carbon share in order to complete its
valence shell?A) 1B) 2C) 3D) 4E) 8


Which of the following statements best describes the carbon atoms
present in all organicmolecules?A) They were incorporated
into organic molecules by plants.B) They were processed into
sugars through photosynthesis.C) They are ultimately derived
from carbon dioxide.D) Only A and C are correct.E) A, B,
and C are correct


Amino Acid

dipeptide formed

glucose and fructose

structural isomers

What is an alpha helix?

the secondary structure of a protein
he alpha helix (?-helix) is a common secondary structure of
proteins and is a righthand-coiled or spiral conformation (helix) in
which every backbone N-H group donates a hydrogen bond to the
backbone C=O group of the amino acid four residues earlier (hydrogen bonding)

Which of the following molecules would contain a polar covalent
bond?A CL2B NaClC H2OD CH4E C6H1206


The major class of biological molecules that are not polymersA
lipidsB Peptide bondsC Alpha helixD Unsaturated
fatty acidsE Cellulose



donates H+ when a solution becomes to basic and accepts H+ when a
solution becomes too acidic

Linkages between the monomers of proteinsA lipidsB
Peptide bondsC Alpha helixD Unsaturated fatty acidsE Cellulose


Which of the macromolecules below would be structural parts of the
cell, enzymes, or involved in cell movement or communication?(A)
nucleic acids(B) proteins(C) lipids(D)
carbohydrates(E) minerals


Hydrolysis is involved in which of the following?(A) formation
of starch(B) hydrogen bond formation between nucleic
acids(C) peptide bond formation of proteins(D) the
hydrophilic interactions of lipids(E) the digestion of maltose
to glucose


If the pH of a solution is decreased from 7 to 6, it means that
the(A) concentration of H+ has decreased to a tenth what it was
at PH7(B) concentration of H+ is 10 times greater.(C)
concentration of OH- is ten times greater(D) concentration of
OH- has increased by one seventh of what it was.(E) solution has
become more basic.


Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have all of the following structures
in common EXCEPT(A) a plasma membrane.(B) DNA.(C) a
nucleoid region.(D) ribosomes.(E) cytoplasm.


An organelle that is characterized by extensive, folded membranes and
is often associated with ribosomes.(A) Peroxisomes(B)
Golgi apparatus(C) Lysosomes(D) Endoplasmic
reticulum(E) Mitochondria


Which of the following is not a polymer?A) glucoseB)
starchC) celluloseD) chitinE) DNA


Which of the following is true of both starch and cellulose?A)
They are both polymers of glucose.B) They are geometric isomers
of each other.C) They can both be digested by humans.D)
They are both used for energy storage in plants.E) They are both
structural components of the plant cell wall.


Which type of interaction stabilizes the alpha (?) helix and the beta
(?) pleated sheet structures of proteins?A) hydrophobic
interactionsB) nonpolar covalent bondsC) ionic
bondsD) hydrogen bondsE) peptide bonds


A strong covalent bond between amino acids that functions in
maintaining a polypeptide?s specificthree-dimensional shape is a
(an)A) ionic bond.B) hydrophobic interaction.C) van
der Waals interaction.D) disulfide bond.E) hydrogen bond.


At which level of protein structure are interactions between the side
chains (R groups) most important?A) primaryB)
secondaryC) tertiaryD) quaternaryE) all of the above


a steroid

Which of the following are nitrogenous bases of the pyrimidine
type?A) guanine and adenineB) cytosine and uracilC)
thymine and guanineD) ribose and deoxyriboseE) adenine and thymine


Which of the following are nitrogenous bases of the purine
type?A) cytosine and guanineB) guanine and adenineC)
adenine and thymineD) thymine and uracilE) uracil and cytosine


In the double helix structure of nucleic acids, cytosine hydrogen
bonds toA) deoxyribose.B) ribose.C) adenine.D)
thymine.E) guanine.


What is the structural feature that allows DNA to replicate?A)
sugar-phosphate backboneB) complementary pairing of the
nitrogenous basesC) disulfide bonding (bridging) of the two
helixesD) twisting of the molecule to form an ? helixE)
three-component structure of the nucleotides


Which of the following is an example of hydrolysis?A) the
reaction of two monosaccharides, forming a disaccharide with the
release of waterB) the synthesis of two amino acids, forming a
peptide with the release of waterC) the reaction of a fat,
forming glycerol and fatty acids with the release of waterD) the
reaction of a fat, forming glycerol and fatty acids with the
utilization of waterE) the synthesis of a nucleotide from a
phosphate, a pentose sugar, and a nitrogenous base with
theproduction of a molecule of water


The element nitrogen is present in all of the following
exceptA) proteins.B) nucleic acids.C) amino
acids.D) DNA.E) monosaccharides


Enzymes areA) carbohydrates.B) lipids.C)
proteins.D) nucleic acids


Which four elements make up approximately 96% of living matter?

carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen

which type of molecule would be most abundant in a typical
prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell?


amino acids are acids because the posess
a. amino
b. alcohol
c. sulhydrl
d. carboxyl
e. aldehyde


emergent properties

An emergent property is a characteristic an entity gains when
it becomes part of a bigger system. Emergent properties
help living organisms better adapt to their environments and increase
their chances of survival. ... Emergent Properties at the Tissue Level
In multicellular organisms, cells are arranged into tissues or groups
of similar cells that work together to perform a particular function.


each of a pair of molecules that are mirror images of each other.

Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection

More individuals are produced each generation that can
survive. Phenotypic variation exists among individuals and
the variation is heritable. Those individuals with
heritable traits better suited to the environment will survive.
When reproductive isolation occurs new species will form.

What does it mean to say organisms DON"T evolve?

individual organisms do NOT experience genetic change during their lifetime