A&P ch 6

perichondrium

Cartilage receives nutrients through blood vessels in the:

hyaline.

The fetal/embryonic skeleton begins as which type of cartilage?

elastic

What type of cartilage is the most flexible?

fibrocartilage

What type of cartilage has great tensile strength to withstand compression?

fibrocartilage.

What type of cartilage comprises each knee meniscus?

elastic

What type of cartilage forms the epiglottis?

hyaline

What type of cartilage forms the nasal and costal cartilage?

Interstitial

What type of cartilage growth expands cartilage from within?

Appositional

What type of cartilage growth expands the cartilage from the outside?

chondroblasts

What type of cell actively secretes new matrix for cartilage?

Late adolescence.

Cartilage calcification begins in the embryo and continues to when?

appendicular skeleton.

The clavicle belongs to the

appendicular skeleton.

The ulna belongs to the

axial skeleton.

T6 belongs to the

Calcium and phosphorus

What are two minerals stored in the bone matrix?

Red bone marrow

Where does blood cell formation occur?

hematopoiesis

What is the term for blood cell formation?

Triglyceride/fat storage � yellow bone marrow

What is stored in the medullary cavity (bone cavities)?

carpals

What are the only bones of the upper limbs that are not long bones?

epiphysis

What is the term for the end of a long bone?

Attachment points for tendons and ligaments

Why do bones have bulges/projections on them?

Attachment points for tendons and ligaments

Why are the holes/openings in some bones?Attachment points for
tendons and ligaments

spine

What type of bone projection is sharp and slender?

process

What type of bone projection is any bony prominence?

meatus

What type of bone opening is a canal-like passage?

foramen.

A round or oval opening in a bone is a

Spongy bone

What type of bone contains trabeculae?

epiphyseal line..

The remnant of the growth plate is the

Articular cartilage

What is the term for the hyaline cartilage found at the ends of long bones?

endosteum

What is the membrane that lines the trabeculae?

Dense irregular connective tissue

What type of tissue is the periosteum?

build, break down

Osteoblasts are cells that _______ bone and Osteoclasts _________ bone.

diplo�

In flat bones, what is the term for the spongy bone structure between
compact bone?

Trabecular cavities of the heads of femur and humerus

Where are two general areas/locations of trabecular cavities that are
hematopoietic in adults?

Osteogenic cells

Which cells give rise to osteoblasts?

Osteon or Haversian system

What is the structural unit of compact bone?

Central canal

What canal runs down the center of the Haversian system and contains
blood vessels and nerves?

Perforating canals

What is another name for Volkmann�s canals?

lacunae

What are the small cavities containing the osteocytes?

Interstitial lamellae

What lamellae lie between intact osteons filling spaces in between them?

trabeculae

The bone pattern/latticework of spongy bone is called

ostoid

What is the organic material secreted by the osteoblasts?

Ground substance and collagen fibers

What two substances is it made up of?

hydroxyapatites

What is the inorganic composition of bone?

2nd month of embryonic development

When does bone formation begin?

Late adolescence to early adulthood

When does bone growth end?

Throughout life.

When does bone remodeling and repair occur?

intramembranous

What type of ossification forms the flat bones of the cranium and clavicles?

endochondral

What type of ossification replaces hyaline cartilage and occurs in
all bones below the skull except for the clavicles?

diaphysis, epiphysis.

In endochondral ossification, the primary ossification center is in
the _______and the secondary ossification center is in the

Epiphyseal plate and articular cartilage

When endochondral ossification is complete, what 2 locations of
hyaline cartilage remain?

while appositional growth increases the thickness of bones.

In post-natal bone growth, interstitial growth increase the length of bones;

Growth hormone

What hormone stimulates epiphyseal plate activity?

resorption

What is the term for breaking down bone?

periosteum and endosteum

What 2 locations in bone perform bone deposit and resorption?

osteoclasts

Which cells perform bone resorption?

blood

Calcium homeostasis is important in the body. Which tissue has
priority when it comes to calcium, bone or blood?

Parathyroid hormone

When blood calcium levels are too low, which hormone is secreted to
activate osteoclasts?

Wolff�s law

A bone grows or remodels in response to forces or demands placed upon
it. Which law is this?

incomplete

bone is not broken all the way through?

compression.

What type of fracture occurs when:bone is crushed?

epiphyseal

What type of fracture occurs when:the epiphysis separates from the diaphysis?

Greenstick (only in children).

Only one side of the shaft breaks and the other side bends?

hematoma

What forms in the:first stage of bone fracture healing?

fibrocartilaginous callus

What forms in the second stage:

Bony callus

What forms in the third stage?