A&P ch 3

Phospholipid bilayer

What is the main component of the plasma (cell) membrane?

phosphate heads are hydrophilic

The lipid tails of the plasma membrane are hydrophobic while the

Lipid tails

Which component of the plasma membrane turns in toward each other,
away from the intracellular and extracellular fluid?

Aid in cell recognition

What are the role of Glycoproteins in the plasma membrane?

Strength

What is the role of cholesterol in the plasma membrane?

simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, and filtration

List the four types of passive transport across cell membranes:

diffusion

What type of transport involves the net movement of particles from
high to low concentration?

Facilitated diffusion

What type of transport uses a channel protein or a carrier protein to
passively move particles across the plasma membrane?

high to low concentration.

Osmosis is the diffusion of water from

solute (�salt�)

Water follows

Swell and possible hemolysis

What could happen to a cell in a hypotonic solution?

CRENATION.

What happens to a cell in a hypertonic solution?

3 Na+ from the cell while taking in (how many) 2 K+.

The sodium-potassium pump removes (how many)

concentration of Na+ is higher outside.

The concentration of K+ is higher inside the cell, while the

phagocytosis.

What type of endocytosis is cell drinking? pinocytosis Cell eating?

ribosomes (or rough ER)

Protein synthesis:

smooth ER

Lipid Synthesis:

nucleus

Control Center:

lysosomes

Digestive function:

peroxisomes

Destroys harmful toxins and free radicals:

mitochondria

Produces ATP/energy:

nucleus

Contains the chromatin/chromosomes:

centrioles

Important for cell division:

golgi apparatus

Modifies, sorts, and packages products:

smooth ER

Stores cellular calcium:

flagella

Moves an entire cell:

cilia

Moves substances along the outer surface:

microvilli

Increases surface area of the plasma membrane for absorption:

nucleolus

Ribosome synthesis:

nuclear pores for passage of proteins, RNA, and solutes.

The nuclear membrane is the membrane surrounding the nucleus and contains

23

There are ______pairs of chromosomes.

nucleosome

DNA wrapped around histones in a long and slender fashion is

before cell division occurs are chromosomes.

Condensed chromatin;

nucleotides

What are the building blocks of Nucleic Acids?

Sugar � phosphate � nitrogen base

What 3 components make up a nucleotide?

A-T, C-G

List the nitrogen bases in DNA and arrange them according to their
pairing rules:

Uracil U

RNA does not contain the nitrogen base called thyamine T instead uses

mRNA, tRNA, rRNA

What are the 3 types of RNA used in protein synthesis?

tRNA

What type of RNA delivers the amino acids to the growing polypeptide
chain at the ribosomes?

mRNA

What type of RNA is produced during transcription?

Transcription then translation

What are the two steps in protein synthesis in order?

helicase

What protein unwinds the DNA double helix during DNA replication?

semiconservative replication

In DNA replication, each original DNA strand is a template for a new
strand. This is termed

S-phase (part of interphase)

What specific part of the cell cycle does DNA replicate?

interphase phase of the cell cycle.

The cells are not actively dividing during the

chromatid

What a chromosome is paired with its copy, each copy is termed a sister

centromere

Sister chromatids are attached to each other at the

anaphase

Centromeres split and the sister chromatids pull apart towards
opposite poles during

prophase

Chromosomes condense, the nuclear envelope disappears, and spindle
fibers emerge from the centrioles during

mitosis

The division of the nucleus is

cytokinesis

The division of the cytoplasm is

Cytokinesis

___________ begins during late anaphase and continues through telophase

cleavage furrow

During cytokinesis, the area where the plasma membrane pinches into
the cytoplasm is the