A&P ch 2

matter

Anything that has a mass and takes up space is

Solid liquid gas

What are the 3 states of matter?

elements

What are the fundamental substances that make up all matter?

compounds

What is a substance composed of two or more different elements joined
by chemical bonds?

molecule

What is a substance composed of two or more elements (not necessarily
different) joined by chemical bonds?

Kinetic, potential

What is energy of motion? What is stored energy?

C H O N, OXYGEN

What are the four most abundant elements in humans? What is the most
abundant element?

atom

What is the smallest unit of matter?

neutrons

Isotopes differ in the number of

the number of protons in an atom.

The atomic number is always

8

The atomic number of carbon is 6. An isotope of carbon is carbon-14
(name according to its mass). How many neutrons are in carbon-14?

unstable and radioactive

Heavy isotopes are often

the atomic mass

The sum of the protons and neutrons is

the atomic weight

The average mass of all isotopes of a given atom is

8

According to the octet rule, the first shell can hold 2 electrons,
and each subsequent shell can hold

the valence shell

The outermost shell of an atom is call

noble gases

Atoms with full valence shells are called

ionic

What type of bond forms when one or more electrons are transferred
from one atom to another?

ion

What is the term for a charged atom?

cation and is positively charged.

An atom that donates an electron is termed a

anion and is negatively charged.

An atom that accepts an electron is termed a

a covalent bond is formed.

When atoms bond by sharing electrons,

non-polar covalent

Equal sharing of electrons form a

a polar covalent

Unequal sharing of electrons form

hydrogen

What is the weakest type of bond?

hydrolysis or catabolic, or decomposistion

What type of reaction breaks a complex reactant into simpler products?

enzymes

What are biological catalysts that lower the activation energy needed
for a reaction to proceed?

Carbon and hydrogen

What two elements are present in organic compounds?

water

What inorganic compound make up 70% of your body?

suspension

What type of mixture is heterogeneous?

solution

If salt dissolves in water, what type of mixture has formed?

anabolic

A dehydration reaction is anabolic/catabolic (choose one).

hydrolysis.

What type of reaction uses water to split a polymer into two monomers?

Ions dissociate

What happens to salts as they dissolve in water?

acids

What type of substance releases hydrogen ions (H+) into solution?

OH- into solution.

A base releases

acidic, basic

pH 4 is ______, while pH 9 is _____

pH 6.

pH 3 is 1000 times more acidic than

buffers

What prevents large swings in pH in our bodies?

carbohydrates

Which organic compound is a source of fuel for our cells with
monosaccharide subunits?

polysaccharides

What is the general term for polymers of carbohydrates?

glycogen

What is the storage form of carbohydrates in animals?

lipids

What category of organic compounds do triglycerides belong to?

steroids

What category of lipids does cholesterol belong to?

Amino acids

What are the building blocks of proteins?

primary structure of proteins.

The order of the chain of amino acids is the

the secondary structure of proteins.

Alpha-helices and beta-sheets form

Ribose and deoxyribose

What are the two sugars found in nucleic acids?

nucleotides

What are the building blocks of nucleic acids?

A-T, C-G

In DNA, show the purine-pyrimidine pairing rules:

TCAAGTCC

If a DNA sequence is AGTTCAGG, what is the corresponding DNA sequence?

AAGGCCUU

If a DNA sequence is TTCCGGAA, what is the corresponding RNA sequence?

ATP

What is a source of energy for cells that contains 3 phosphate groups?

18

The atomic number of calcium is 20. How many electrons are in Ca2+?

18

The atomic number of chlorine is 17. How many electrons are in Cl-?