Abnormal Psychology

Philippe Pinel

Humane treatment 1793

Dr Henry Cotton

Infection causes mental illness, removed teeth and organs

James Harvey Kellogg

Diet, masturbation and digestion cause mental illness

Antonio Moniz

Mixed results, used anaesthetic and drilled holes to inject pure alcohol

Walter Freeman

Ice pick method with hammer, no anaesthetic (used electric shock)

Manfred Sakel

Insulin, stopped by glucose
Wet shock and dry shock

Meduna - Metrazol

Chemical convulsions
Intravenous metrazol
Pain and injuries
Cheap but hard to control


Electroconvulsive shock therapy, high doses and no anaesthetic
Brain damage, injury and memory loss

Modern ECT

Safe and controlled
GIven muscle relaxant
Used in severe depression, schizophrenia, mania and catatonia


First antipsychotics 1952
reduced positive symptoms
Work on dopamine and serotonin systems


In the moment
Anything that can be made conscious
Not easily accessible/hidden (trauma)


Animal in us (pleasure)
Logic reason (reality- mediates)
Conscious - moral - society

Oedipal Crisis

Boys love mother
Father becomes the enemy
Castration anxiety so start to act like father
Focus on girls

Penis Envy

Girls notice boys have penises
Baby becomes penis substitute


Goal of life is to be still, at peace when they have no needs, thus
everyone has unconscious desire to die.

The Talking Cure (aspects of therapy)

Makes unconscious conscious
free association
freudian slips

Ink testing is a _______ test


Freud�s legacy

Biology and society influences us
trauma Can cause symptoms
Talking as therapy


False belief
Held despite evidence to the contrary
Must be foreign to most members of the culture
May be bizarre

Capgras syndrome

Family replaced by identical imposters

Conrad�s syndrome

Belief you are dead (shell)

Fregoli�s syndrome

Belief that a persecutor is taking on different appearances and out
to get you

Erotomania syndrome

Belief that some other person is in love with you even though you
have never met

Specific life events that predispose someone to becoming delusional

Low economic status
Aversive intrusive events (Shreber case of father�s abuse)
Increased paranoia in migrant populations

What attentional and perceptual factors that influence delusions

Can follow onset of deafness and sensory deprivation
Capgras may result from damage to the amygdala (unlike prosopagnosia)
Frontal lobe may act as anomaly detector

4 Factors of cults

Compliance with the group
Dependence on leader
Avoidance of dissent
Devaluation of outside

Heaven�s Gate

UFO religious cult


Jim Jones, cyanide cool aid
Mass suicide

Criteria for conspiracy theory

Often political
resist falsification
invokes a conspiracy by sinister and powerful actors
is an explanation of an event or situation

Positive v negative symptoms

Positive- hallucinations (mainly auditory), delusionsns, disorganised
thinking and behaviour
Negative- avolition, affective flattening and alogia


Decreases thoughts and speech
Lack of initiation in activities

DSM for Schizophrenia

2 or more over a 1 month period
Disorganised speech
Grossly disorganised or catatonia behaviour
Negative symptoms

Lifetime prevalence of schizo


Risk factors for schizophrenia

Genetic, neurobiology, stress, family interactions
Prenatal: flu, nutrition, birth complications
Could be mistaken for OCD or PTSD etc

Two prognosis� for schizophrenia

Chronic: poorer long term, more negative symptoms can cause cognitive deficits
Acute: better long term outcomes, more positive symptoms, more
rapid and may have psychotic episode.

3 Dimensions of anxiety


Panic disorder

Specific phobia and social phobia

Panic disorder symptoms

Palpitations, sweating, shortness of breath, chills, nausea
Behavioural strategies to prevent feared panic attacks

Risk factors for anxiety

Generalized psychological vulnerability


Avoiding lots of things (end result), e.g. not leaving the house

Define phobia and the 3 central features

irrational and persistent fears of certain objects/animals out of
proportion to the threat posed
-Anxiety limited to a set of stimuli
-contact elicits fear and avoidance
-unreasonable and excessive such that it interferes in daily functioning

4 Major types of phobias

natural environment
situational type

GAD main aspect to remember as compared to panic disorder


Current treatments for anxiety

Exposure to feared stimuli
Challenging thoughts

Main 2 components of OCD

Obsessions: thoughts (images or impulses that persistently intrude mind)
Compulsions: actions (irresistible and carried out in a repetitive
or ritualistic manner in response to obsessions)
At least one hour a day
Dont need both to be diagnosed

Sub types of OCD

Forbidden thoughts
Pure obsessions

OCD is a ____ feedback system


What is thought-action fusion

Moral: cognitive intrusions about disturbing events are morally
equivalent to actual occurrence of events
Likelihood: idea that thinking about an event increases its likelihood

Main features of PTSD

Vivid flashbacks
Intrusive (can't control) and reexperience (sights, sounds, actions)

Hofstede's 5 dimensions of culture

Power distance - hierarchy v equality
Individualism v collectivism
Performance v caring/quality of life
Uncertainty avoidance index (let it be v religion etc.)
Long term orientation - flexibility v discipline

What does Martin Seligman's well being theory cover

positive emotions

What is the pacific model of mental health/wellbeing?


Interdependent and independent self conscious relates to?

Considering how individually someone operates

3 aspects of biculturalism in NZ (Hudson and Russell)


In what year did legislation enable the treaty into modern law?


Name three aspects of indigenous research that could be implemented
in NZ?


Te Whare Tapa Wha concept of Hauora covers what?

Family health (taha whanau)
Mental health (taha hinengaro)
Physical health (taha tinana)
Spiritual wellbeing (taha wairua)

Theoretical points of working with Maori

Geographically bound Relationships are vital
(collective vs individual culture) Diversity of personal
experience of culture In-group cultural blindness
Tree questioning vs linear question

Key ways to work with Maori according to the Whare Tapa Wha model,
e.g. the case study of Hana

Hui with whanau, listen and observe
Involve a kaumatua, whanau or cultural consultant
Start with a karakia (protection, taha wairua)
Mihi Mihi (partnership)
Talk about roles and how people connect with Hana

What should you avoid saying when working with maori?

Avoid questions like "in your culture... or how do maori view?"
not everyone is aware fully of their culture, talk about whanau

Overall when working with maori (or anyone), be generous, transparent
and ...


Key ethical issues to consider e.g. looking at lobotomies


3 aspects of Folie a Deux (shared delusions)

There must be a marked similarity between the delusional
content of the partners' psychosis, The partners must
accept, support and share each other's delusional ideas, and
There must be positive evidence that the partners have been
intimately associated over a long period of time.

Diathesis stress model of psychotic episodes

Argues that episodes occurs because of an interaction between an
underlying vulnerability (social, cognition, biological) and some
triggering event (stress, substance etc)

Treatment of psychotic disorders in acute phase

24 hr access to hospital/treatment
Pharmacological approaches
Address comorbidities and substance use

Treatment of psychotic disorders in enduring phase

Alt. anti psychotics
Pharmacotherapy and CBT
Consumer recovery model (highlights empowerment, respect for broader
community etc)