Chap 19 Study Guide

What is blood flow? How are blood flow and CO related?

Measured as ml/min Equivalent to Cardiac Output
(CO) Constant at rest Varies Through individual

What is blood pressure?

Force per unit area exerted on the wall of a blood vessel by
the blood

What is resistance?

Opposition to flow Measure of the amount of friction
blood encounters Mostly in the systemic circulation

What are the three important sources of the resistance to blood flow?

Blood viscosity Total blood vessel length
Blood vessel Diameter

What is the relationship between blood flow, blood pressure, and resistance?

F= ?P/R

How does blood pressure change as blood travels from arteries to veins?

It declines as it travels

Clinically, the term blood pressure usually refers to?

Systemic arterial Blood Pressure

What is MAP? Learn how to calculate MAP?

MAP: Mean arterial pressure, Pressure that propels the blood to
tissues MAP= (SBP+DBP+DBP)/3

What is pulse pressure? How to calculate it?

PP= Difference between systolic and diastolic pressure
Systolic-Diastolic= PP

Where is the vasomotor center located?


What is baroreceptors? Where are they located and how are they stimulated?

Pressure receptors Located: Carotid sinuses, Aortic
Arch, wall of large arteries of the neck and thorax
Stimulated By: Increased Blood Pressure

Learn the mechanism of blood pressure regulation when baroreceptors
are stimulated.

Increase input to the cardiovascular center

Learn the mechanism of blood pressure regulation when baroreceptors
are inhibited.

What are the mechanisms that can regulate blood pressure?

Baroreceptor Reflex Chemoreceptors Reflex
Hormonal Control
Long Term; Renin � Angiotensin

Learn how the renin-angiotensin mechanism regulate blood pressure

What instrument used to determine blood pressure?


When measuring BP by the auscultatory method what does the first
sound represent?

Systolic Pressure

Which artery is commonly used to record blood pressure?

Brachial Artery

What are common places to take one's pulse?

What is hypertension?

High Blood Pressure (? 140/90)

What are primary and secondary hypertension?

Primary hypertension: 90% of hypertension conditions; Heredity,
Diet, Obesity, Age, Smoking Secondary hypertension: Less
Common; Kidney disease, hyperthyroidism, Cushing�s,

What is hypotension? What are the types of hypotension?

Low Blood Pressure Types
Orthostatic: temporary low BP and dizziness when suddenly
rising from a sitting or reclining position Chronic: hint
of poor nutrition and warning sign for Addison�s disease or
hypothyroidism Acute: important sign of circulatory

What is tissue perfusion involved in?

Delivery of O2 and nutrients, Removal of wastes, Gas exchange,
Absorption of nutrients, Urine formation

What is blood colloid pressure?

Pressure inside capillaries due to non-diffusible plasma
proteins, which draws water toward themselves

What pressure moves fluid out of capillaries? And what is the
opposing force that draws water back inside the capillaries?

Fluid Out: Capillary hydrostatic pressure (HPc), Fluid In:
Interstitial Fluid Hydrostatic Pressure (HPif)

Learn how to calculate NFP.

NFP= ( HPc-HPif )-( OPc-OPif ) If HPif =0, OPif =0 � MFP = (HPc
� OPc)

What is a circularity shock?

Any condition that results in inadequate blood flow to meet
tissue needs Blood Flow cannot circulate normally

What are the types of circulatory shock? What do they result from?

Hypovolemic Shock: Results from Large scale blood loss
Vascular Shock: Results from extreme vasodilation and
decreased peripheral resistance
Cardiogenic Shock: Results when an inefficient heart cannot
sustain adequate circulation