BY124L Exam two Master Study Guide

Five Characteristics of Animal Kingdom

Body Plan Type of Symmetry Germ Layer
Body Cavity Segmentation Grouping

Five Characteristics of Phylum Porifera

Sac Body Plan Asymmetrical Symmetry No Tissue
Layers No Body Cavity No Segmentation

Five Characteristics of Phylum Cnidaria

Polyp/Medusa Body Plan Radial Symmetry
Diploblast Gastrovascular cavity No
Segmentstion

Five Characteristics of Phylum Ctenophora

Sac body plan Radial Symmetry Diploblast
Gastrovascular Cavity No Segmentation

Five Characteristics of Phylum Platyhelminthes

Sac Body Plan Bilateral Symmetry
Triploblast Acoelomate; Branched Gastrovascular
Cavity No segmentation

Five Characteristics of Phylum Rotifera

Tube in Tube Body Plan Bilateral Symmetry
Triploblast Pseudocoelomate No segmentation

Five Characteristics of Phylum Nematoda

Tube in Tube Bilateral Triploblast
Pseudocoelomate No Segmentation

Five Characteristics of Phylum Nemertea

Tube in Tube Bilateral Triploblast
Coelomate No Segmentation

Five Characteristics of Phylum Mollusca

Tube in Tube Bilateral Triploblast
Coelomate No Segmentation

Five Characteristics of Phylum Annelida

Tube in Tube Bilateral Triploblast
Coelomate Segmentation

Five Characteristics of Phylum Tarigrada

Tube in Tube Bilateral Triploblast
Coelomate Segmentation

Five Characteristics of Phylum Arthropoda

Tube in Tube Bilateral Triploblast
Coelomate Segmentation

Five Characteristics of Phylum Trilobitomorpha

Tube in Tube Bilateral Triploblast
Coelomate Segmentation

Five Characteristics of Phylum Cheliceriformes

Tube in Tube Bilateral Triploblast
Coelomate Segmentation

Five Characteristics of Subphylum Myriapoda

Tube in Tube Bilateral Triploblast
Coelomate Segmentation

Five Characteristics of Subphylum Hexapoda

Tube in Tube Bilateral Triploblast
Coelomate Segmentation

Five Characteristics of Subphylum Crustacea

Tube in Tube Bilateral Triploblast
Coelomate Segmentation

Five Characteristics of Phylum Brachiopoda

Tube in Tube Bilateral Triploblast
Coelomate Segmentation

Five Characteristics of Phylum Echinodermata

Tube in Tube Bilateral Triploblast
Coelomate Segmentation

Five Characteristics of Phylum Hemichordata

Tube in Tube Bilateral Triploblast
Coelomate Segmentation

Five Characteristics of Phylum Chordata

Tube in Tube Bilateral Triploblast
Coelomate Segmentation

Five Characteristics of Subphylum Urochordata

Tube in Tube Bilateral Triploblast
Coelomate Segmentation

Five Characteristics of Subphylum Cephalochordata

Tube in Tube Bilateral Triploblast
Coelomate Segmentation

Five Characteristics of Subphylum Craniata

Tube in Tube Bilateral Triploblast
Coelomate Segmentation

Nerve Net

Noncentralized arrangement of neurons in Cnidaria

Mesoglea

Jellylike layer between epidermis and gastrodermis (Phylum Cnidaria)

Gastrovascular Cavity

Area where food is brought to be digested

Cnidocytes

Specialized cells unique to Cnidaria that contain a whip-like
stinging barb called a nematocyst

Polyp Stage

Sessile Stage

Medusa Stage

Mobile Stage

Class Hydrozoa Body Plan

Body Plan is a main stage of polyp but a medusa stage for sexual reproduction

Class Hydrozoa larva are called

planula

Class Scyphozoa Body Plan

Body Plan is a main stage of Medusa

Class Scyphozoa are also known as the

True Jellyfish

Class Cubozoa Body Plan

Body Plan is a main stage of Medusa

Class Anthozoa Body Plan

Body Plan is a main stage of Polyp

Class Anthozoa have a symbiotic relations with an algae known as...

zooxanthellae

Phylum Platyhelminthes do excretion via

flame bulbs that contain flame cells in protonephridia

Class Turbellaria includes the Planaria which has
specialized sensory organs known as the...

eyespots

Class cestoda have reproductive organs called...
....and a head region known as a...

proglottids
scolex

Phylum Rotifera are ________________ animals

Cell constant

Phylum rotifera have a grinding organs called a...

mastax

Phylum nematoda have ______________ muscles only.

longitudinal

Phylum nemertea differ from flatworms (Phylum Platyhelminthes) in two ways

one way digestive system simple circulatory system
(hemolymph)

Five characterostics of Phylum Mollusca

Mantle -> fold of tissue that drapes over visceral mass
Calcium Carbonate Shell Visceral Mass
Radula Muscular Foot

Mollusks have a _______ circulatory system; except for Class Cephalopoda

Open

Phylum Annelidia has a _____ circulatory system

closed

Class Polychaeta have highly vascularized paired appendages called _____.
They are used locomotion and gas exchange

parapodia

Class Hirudinea are successful parasites by utilizing a ..... and a
.... to cause numbness and anticoagulant.

Anesthetic and Hirudin

Clade Onychophora shares traits with ________ and ____________.

Annelid and Arthropod

Phylum Tarigrada are known to be...

undestructable

Phylum Arthrooda is known as the ...... of all phyla

largest

Arthropoda skeletons are made of

chitin

In an arthropoda the segments are...

fused

Subphylum Trilobitomorpha are all....

extinct

Subphylum Cheliceriformes have specifalized mouthparts called......
that replace the first pair of walking legs

Chelicerae

Class Chilopoda are _________ and ____________

carnivorous and poisonous

Class Diplopoda are _______ and _________

Herbivorous and not poisonous

Subphylum Hexapoda has 3 body regions known as the....

head thorax abdomen

Complete Metamorphosis is known as..

egg -> larva -> pupa -> adult

Incomplete Metamorphosis is known as...

egg -> nymph -> adult

Unlike insect, __________________ have appendages on the abdomen

Subphylum Crustacea

In Phylum Echinodermata the adults have _______ symmetry and larva
have __________ symmetry

Radial; bilateral

Phylum Echinodermata Ossicles

form a calcareous skeleton

Regular Class Echinoidea

Sea Urchins

Irregular Class Echinoidea

Sand Dollars

Class Holothuroidea is capable of __________ for defense

evisceration

Phylum Hemichordata have ________ to "breath

pharyngeal gill slits

Four Characteristics that appear sometime in Phylum Chordata's Life Cycle

Pharyngeal Clefs notochord muscular, post
anal tail dorsal, hollow nerve chord

Subphylum Craniata includes the _______________

vertebrates

In vertebrates the ___________ replaces the notochord

backbone

Class myxini has a _____ chambered heart

two

Class Placodermi is ____________

all extinct

Class Chondrichthyes have a specialized organ known as the
__________________; used to detect water vibrations

Lateral Line

Class Amphibia have lungs, but also complete gas exchange via_______

the skin

Class Amphibia posses a trait known as _____________, where the
animal retains juvenile traits

neoteny

Class Amphibia control body temperature via __________, where the
enviroment depects the temperature

ectothermic

Class Reptilia have the following specialized traits making them
better adapted to land

limbs dry, scale skin keratinized skin
better lungs ribcage internal
fertilization ammiotic egg

Order Rhychocephalia have specialized sensory organs known as a

third eye

Class Aves and Order Crocodilia have a

4 chambered heart

Class Mammilia posses specialized glands known as

mammary glands

Monotremes

primitive mammals that lay eggs

Marsupials

Give birht but embryo develops in a pouch

Placentals

mother nourishes embryo via placenta

Phylum Porifera Specimen

Sponges

Phylum Cnidaria > Class Hydrozoa Specimen

Hydra, Obelia, Portuguese Man-O-War

Phylum Cnidaria > Class Scyphozoa Specimen

True Jellyfish

Phylum Cnidaria > Class Anthozoa Specimen

Corals and Sea Anemone

Phylum Ctenophora Specimen

Comb Jellies

Phylum Platyhelminthes > Class Turbellaria Specimen

Planaria

Phylum Platyhelminthes > Class trematoda Specimen

Flukes

Phylum Platyhelminthes > Class Cestoda Specimen

tapeworms

Phylum Nematoda Specimen

Round Worms

Phylum Nemertea Specimen

Ribbon Worm

Phylum Mollusca > Class Polyplacophora Specimen

Chiton

Phylum Mollusca > Class Gastropoda Specimen(s)

Nudibranch; Slug; Snail; Conch/Welk

Phylum Mollusca > Class Bivalvia Specimen(s)

Razor Clam; Mussel; Oyster; Scallop

Phylum Mollusca > Class Scaphopoda Specimen

Tooth Shell

Phylum Mollusca > Class Cephalopoda Specimen(s)

Octopus; Squid; (Cuttlefish and chambered nautilus not Specimens Shown)

Phylum Annelidia > Class Oligochaeta Specimen

Earthworm

Phylum Annelidia > Class Polychaeta Specimen

Fan Worms and Marine Worms (Specimen)

Phylum Annelidia > Class Hirudinea Specimen

Leeches

Phylum Onychophora Specimen

Peripatus

Subphylum Trilobitomorpha

Trilobites

Subphylum Trilobitomorpha > Class Merostomata Specimens

horseshoe crab

Subphylum Trilobitomorpha > Class Pycnogonida Specimens

Sea Spiders

Subphylum Celicerformes

Chelicerates

Subphylum Chelicerformes > Class Arachnida Specimens

Spiders, Ticks, Scorpions, Mites, Harvestmen

Subphylum Myriapoda > Class Chilopoda Specimen

Centipedes

Subphylum Myriapoda > Class Diplopoda Specimen

Millipedes

Subphylum Hexapoda > Class Insecta

Grasshopper; Insects

Subphylum Crustacea

Shrimp; Lobster; Prawn; Daphnia; Rolly Polly; Sow Bugs; Crab

Phylum Brachiopoda

Lamp shell

Phylum Echinodermata > Class Asteroidea Specimen

Sea Stars

Phylum Echinodermata > Class Ophiuroidea Specimens

Brittle Stars

Phylum Echinodermata > Class Echinoidea

Urchins and Sand Dollars

Phylum echinodermata > Class Holothuroidea Specimen

Sea Cucumbers

Phylum Echinodermata > Class Crinoidea Specimen

Sea Lillies and feather stars

Phylum hemichordata

acorn worm

Subphylum Urochordata Specimen

Tunicates and sea squirts

Subphylum Cephalochordata Specimen

lancet, Amphioxus

Subphylum Craniata > Class Myxini

hagfish

Subphylum Craniata > Class Petromyzontida Specimen

Lamprey

Subphylum Craniata > Class Chondrichthyes Specimen

Cringes flounder; sting ray; skate; "Cartilaginous fish"; Sharks;

Class Mammalia > Order Chiroptera Specimen

bats

Class Reptilia > Order Chelonia Specimen

Turtle and tortoises

Class Reptilia > Order Squamata Specimens

Lizards and snakes

Class Amphibia > Order Anura Specimen

Frog

Class Amphibia > Order Urodela Specimens

Salamander and Newts

Class Osteichthyes Specimens

Bony Fish

Salivary Amylase

Produced in the parotid glands; active in the oral cavity; function
of digestion of polysaccharides

Pepsin

Produced in the Gastric glands; active in the stomach; function of
breaking down proteins into polypeptides

pancreatic amylase

produced in the pancreas; active in the small intestines; function of
breaking down polypeptides further

pancreatic trypsin

produced in the pancreas; active in the small intestines; function of
breaking down polypeptides further

pancreatic chymotrypsin

produced in the pancreas; active in the small intestines; function of
breaking down polypeptides further

pancreatic carboxypeptidase

produced in the pancreas; active in the small intestines; function of
breaking down polypeptides further into amino acids

Dissacharidease

produced in the pancreas; active in the small intestines; function of
breaking down disaccharides

Dipeptidase

produced in the pancreas; active in the small intestines; function of
breaking down polypeptides into amino acids

Aminopeptidase

Produced in the intestinal glands; active in the small intestines;
function of breaking down polypeptides

Pancreatic nucleases

produced in the pancreas; active in the small intestines; function of
breaking down nucleotides into nitrogen, base, and sugars

nucleotidases

produced in the Small intestines; active in the small intestines;
function of breaking down nucleotides into nitrogenous bases

phosphatases

produced in the small intestines; active in the small intestines;
function of breaking down emulsified fats

bile salts

produced in the liver; active in the small intestines; function of
breaking down fat globules to fat droplets

pancreatic lipase

produced in the pancreas; active in the small intestines; function of
breaking down lipids to fatty acids

Inferior/Caudal Vena Cava and Superior/Cranial vena cava go to...

Right Atrium

Right atrium go through...

tricuspid valve

tricupid valve leads to...

right ventricle

right ventricle go through...

pulmonary semilunar valve

pulmonary semilunar valve go to...

pulmonary artery (left and right)

pulmonary artery go to...

left or right lungs

lungs go to..

pulmonary vein

pulmonary vein go to...

Left atrium

left atrium go through...

Bicuspid/Mitral valve

Bicuspid/Mitral valve go to...

Left ventricle

left ventricle go to...

aortic semilunar valve

aortic semilunar valve go to...

aorta (Aortic Arc)

Aorta go to...

The Body Cells

Ductus Arteriosus

Fetal Connection between Pulmonary artery and Aorta

Foramen Orale

Fetal "Hole" from Right atrium to Left atrium

Cranial vena cava (vein)

from cranium to Left atrium

Caudal vena cava (vein)

from abdomen to heart

Coronary arteries

to heart and heart muscles

pulmonary arteries

to left and right lungs

pulmonary veins

from lungs to Left atrium

left and right axillary veins

from forelimbs to cranial vena cava

left and right subclavian veins

from forelimbs to cranial vena cava

left and right subscapular veins

from forelimbs to cranial vena cava

left and right external jugular veins

from neck region

left and right internal jugular veins

from head region

left and right cephalic vein

from forelimb to cranial vena cava

left and right linguofacial vein

from anterior face and jaw

brachiocephalic trunk (artery)

to the right subclavian artery and head and neck and common carotids

Right subclavian artery

to right forelimb and right side of upper body

left subclavian artery

to left forelimb and left side of upper body

left and right common carotids (Artery)

to cranial

celiac artery

to stomach, pancreas, spleen

cranial mesenteric artery

to the jejunum, ileum, colon

left and right renal veins

from left and right kidneys

left and right renal artery

to left and right kidney

left and right external iliac arteries

to right/left hind limbs

left and right external iliac veins

from left and right hind limbs

umbilical vein

from fetal side of placenta

umbilical arteries

enter between iliac arteries; from fetus to placenta

splenic artery

to spleen

caudal mesenteric artery

to colon, rectum

dorsal aorta (Artery)

to lower body

External nares go to...

nostrils

nostrils go to...

nasal passage

nasal passage go to...

nasal pharynx/ sinuses

nasal pharynx/sinuses go to...

epiglottis

epiglottis go to...

glottis

glottis go to...

larynx/voicebox

larynx/voicebox go to...

left and right trachea

left and right trachea go to...

bronchioles

bronchioles go to...

terminal bronchioles

terminal bronchioles go to...

alveolis (composed of alveoli sacs)

alveolis (composed of alveoli sacs) go to...

capillaries

Sinoatrial node(SA)/Pacemaker go to...

Atrioventricular node(AV)

Atrioventricular node(AV) go to...

Bundle of His

Bundle of His go to...

bundle branches

bundle branches go to...

Purkinje Fibers

Apex

Bottom of the heart