Consumer Behavior 11

AIOs (Activities, Interests, and Opinions)

A psychographic measurement of (1) how people spend their time
engaging in activities, (2) what is of most interest or importance to
them in their immediate surroundings, and (3) their opinions and views
about themselves and the world around them.

Biased Scanning

A consumer behavior theory that views self-concept development in
terms of identity aspirations, where the consumer scans the
environment for information to confirm how well the person is meeting
his or her aspirations.

Consistency of the Self

The view that a consumer�s conception of self will display a high
degree of consistency, particularly in the short run.

CAD (Compliant, Aggressive, Detached) Instrument

A research instrument developed to measure people�s interpersonal
orientations within a consumer context.

The Ego

One of three interacting forces identified by Freud, through learning
and experience, the ego develops the individual�s capability for
realistic thinking and ability to deal appropriately with his or her
environment; operating on what is called the reality principle.

The Id

One of three interacting forces identified by Freud, the id is the
source of strong inborn drives and urges such as aggression and sex;
it operates on what is called the pleasure principle, that is, it acts
to avoid tension and seeks immediate pleasure.

Lifestyle-Segmentation Research

Research that measures (1) how people spend their time engaging in
activities, (2) what is of most interest or importance to them in
their immediate surroundings, and (3) their opinions and views about
themselves and the world around them; these three areas are generally
referred to as Activities, Interests, and Opinions.

Multiple-Component Perspective

The consumer behavior research view which argues that a full
understanding of the self is best obtained by using schemes that
account for two or more components or dimensions.

Psychoanalytic Personality Theory

Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalytic theory, proposed that
every individual�s personality is the product of a struggle among
three interacting forces�the id, the ego, and the superego.

Psychographics

An approach to developing composite pictures of consumer types and to
humanizing the data that are collected from consumers, that goes
beyond using demographics (age, sex, race employment characteristics,
etc.) to provide more richness and depth (color, texture, and
dimensionality) when describing consumers, and often needs to be
supplemented by something to fill in the bare bones of the picture.

Reflected Appraisal

A consumer behavior theory that holds that appraisals a person
receives from others mold the self-concept; and the extent of this
influence depends upon characteristics of the appraiser and his or her appraisal.

Self-Appraisal

A consumer behavior theory that proposes that consumers fashion a
self-concept by labeling one�s own dominant behavior patterns
according to what is socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior.

Self-Concept/Product Image Congruence

The consumer behavior research view that holds that consumers may
view certain brands as having image components that they perceive as
defining themselves and/or as being useful in portraying themselves to others.

Self-Image/Self-Concept

How individuals perceive themselves and what behavior they exhibit as
buyers and consumers of products.

Single-Component Perspective

The consumer behavior research view that focuses on the actual
self�the perception of oneself as one believes she actually is.

Social Comparison Theory

A consumer behavior theory that states that a person�s self-concept
depends on how she sees herself in relation to others.

The Superego

One of three interacting forces identified by Freud, the superego
constitutes the moral part of the individual�s psychic structure
through internalizing societal values and represents the ideal by
defining what is right and good.

Trait Theories

Popular non-Freudian personality theory used to explain the behavior
of consumers that's based upon three as-sumptions or propositions: (1)
individuals possess relatively stable behavioral tendencies, (2)
people differ in the degree to which they possess these tendencies,
and (3) when identified and measured, these relative differences among
individuals are useful in characterizing their personalities.

VALS

A consumer behavior research service provided by Strategic Business
Insights (SBI) that defines consumer segments on the basis of a
particular set of personality traits, identified through empirical
research, that affects behavior in the marketplace.