Cardiac and 12-leads related


Leads II,III and aVF show MI's at what part of the heart?

Inferior

Septal

Anterior

Lateral


Inferior


Leads V1 and V2 show MI's at what part of the heart?

Inferior

Septal

Anterior

Lateral


Septal


Leads V3 and V4 show MI's at what part of the heart?

Inferior

Septal

Anterior

Lateral


Anterior


Leads I,aVL,V5 and V6 show MI's at what part of the heart?

Inferior

Septal

Anterior

Lateral


Lateral


Leads II,III and aVF look at what side of the heart?


Right side of the heart.


Leads V1 and V2 look at what side of the heart?


Left side of the heart.


Leads V3 and V4 look at what side of the heart?


Left side of the heart.


Leads I,aVL,V5 and V6 look at what side of the heart?


Left side of the heart.


Leads II,III and aVF look at which Artery?


RCA-Right coronary artery


Leads V1 and V2 look at which Artery?


LAD-Left anterior descending artery


Leads V3 and V4 look at which Artery?


LAD-Left anterior descending artery


Leads I,aVL,V5 and V6 look at which Artery?


Circulatory supplied by the LAD or a branch of the RCA.


Endocardiam


3rd and final layer of the heart wall. Contains branches of
the heart's electrical conduction system.


Myocardium


2nd ( middle ) layer of the heart wall. Made up of layers and
bands of cardiac muscle fibers that are around the Atria and Ventricles.


Epicardium


Outermost layer of the heart walls. Single layer of cells
supported by connective tissues. Contains nerves to the Heart and
the Coronary blood vessels.


R side of the heart pumps blood from/to -


From the Body

To the Lungs


L side of the heart pumps blood from/to -


From the Lungs

To the Body


" Lub Dub " are which heart sounds?


S1 and S2 heart sounds.

S1 Sounds are the Mitral and Tricuspid valves closing.

S2 Sounds are the Aortic and Pulmonic valves closing.


S3 heart sound is what?


Occurring in the ventricular diastole, during the phase of
rapid ventricular filling.


S4 heart sound is what?


Sound of the Atrial contraction that is more forceful than normal.


Cardiac output is what?


HR x Stroke Volume=


Anxiety, Chest Pain, SOB, Diaphoresis, Hypotension, Cool,
clammy skin, Cyanosis, Alt LOC are symptoms of what?


Impaired Cardiac Output


Limb Lead I -


Electrical flows from the R arm to the L arm


Limb Lead II -


Electrical flows from the R arm to the L leg


Limb Lead III -


Electrical flows from the L arm to the L leg


Myocardial Infarction ( M.I. )


Heart tissues dies completely from lack of oxygen.


Ischemia


Initial lack of oxygen in the heart tissue that is causing
injury to the Myocardium.


Ischemic changes on the EKG

ST Segment -


Shows as

-Depression

-Elevation

On the EKG


Ischemic changes on the EKG

T Wave -


Shows as

-Peaking T waves

-Flattening T waves

On the EKG


Ischemic changes on the EKG

Q Wave -


Shows as

-Deepening and widening of Q waves

-Loss of R wave resulting in deep QS wave

On the EKG


Lead V1 looks over -


The Anterior wall of the R ventricle.


Lead V2 and V3 looks over -


The Anterior wall over the Septum


Lead V3 and V4 looks over -


The Anterior wall of the L Ventricle


Pericarditis


Injury caused by an inflamed pericardium producing ST changes
similar to Ischemia/Infarction.


Digitalis


Is toxicity producing ST changes by characterizing a scooped
appearance. The QT-I is also shortened.


Potassium EKG abnormalities


Hyperkalemia producing peaked T waves and merging of the QRS
and T waves.

Hypokalemia reflecting flat T waves, widening of QRS complexes
and appearance of U waves.


Calcium EKG abnormalities


Hypercalcemia produces QT Intervals that are short for the rate.

Hypocalcemiaa produces longer QT Intervals than expected.


Inotropic Effect -


The Force/Energy of contractions within the heart muscle tissue.

Positive-Strengthens the force of cardiac contraction. Exp-
Dopamine, Adrenaline.

Negative-Weakens the force of of cardiac contraction. Exp-
Metoprolol ( lopressor ), Beta-blockers, Calcium channel blockers.


Chronotropic effect -


Affects the HR. The Rate and Speed of Contractions.

Positive-Adrenaline, Atropine

Negative-Beta-blockers, Acetylcholine, Digoxin


Dromotropic -


The Speed of electrical/conduction impulses starting from the
SA node to the Perkinge fibers. How fast automaticity is going to work.

Positive-Epi,Atropine

Negative-Beta-Blockers,Calcium channel blockers


Stroke Volume-


Amount of blood pumped out by either ventricle in a single
Heart beat.


Ejection Fraction -


% of blood that leaves the Heart after each contraction.


Cardiac output -


The amount of blood that is pumped by the ventricle in 1 minute.

Normal for adult is 5 to 6 LPM


Preload -


End- Diastolic volume-Volume of blood in the ventricle at the
end of diastole.


Afterload -


Force against which ventricles contract to eject blood. It is
influenced by Atrial blood pressure.


Purkinje Fibers -


Special network that spreads out the impulses to the L and R
ventricles. Resulting in ventricular contraction.

HR- 20/40 BPM


L and R Bundle Branches


Receives impulses from the Bundle of His. Sending those
impulses to the L and R Ventricles.


Bundle of His -


Upper portion of the Interventricular septum. Transports
impulses to the L and R Bundle Branches.


SA Node -


Mass of tissue located in the R atrium. The start of
Electrical impulse's.

HR- 60/100 BPM


AV Node -


Located on the floor of the R Atrium. Sends and delays
impulses to the Ventricles.

HR- 40/60 BPM