Chapter 4 - Culture & Marketing


deals with a group's design for living and influences every part of
our lives

Hofestede's culture definition

the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the
members of one group or category from those of another

Edward Hall's culture definition

an invisible barrier a completely different way of organizing life,
of thinking, and of conceiving the underlying assumptions about the
family and the state, the economic system, and even Man himself

Three ways to learn culture

socialization, acculturation, and application

Social institutions

family, religion, school, the media, government, and corporations

Elements of Culture

cultural values, rituals, symbols, beliefs, and thought processes


patterns of behavior and interaction that are learned and repeated
vary from country to country


stem from religious training, vary from culture to culture

Individualism/Collective Index (IDV)

focuses on self-orientation

Power Distance Index (PDI)

focuses on authority orientation

Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI)

focuses on risk orientation

Masculinity/Femininity Index (MAS)

focuses on assertiveness and achievement

Time Orientation Index (TOI)

focuses on long-term versus short-term orientations

Cultural borrowing

the responsible effort to learn from others' cultures in the quest
for better solutions to a societies problems

Planned and Unplanned Change

planned change is directed and deliberate, while unplanned change
evolves through consumer choices

Factual Cultural Knowledge

usually obvious and must be learned e.g., different meanings of
colors and different tastes; it deals with a facts about a culture

Interpretive Cultural Knowledge

ability to understand and appreciate the nuances of different
cultural traits and patterns, e.g., the meaning of time, and attitudes
toward people