Module 1

Coronal plane

Front and back

Sagittal plane

Side to side

Transverse plane

Up and down

Epithelial tissue

functions as a selective barrier that covers body surfaces and lines
body cavities. It also forms glands.

Connective tissue

packing material that surrounds and invests other tissues and organs


fiber component

Muscle tissue

cardiac, smooth, skeletal

Which types of tissue does each organ consist of?

epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous

Characteristics of epithelial tissue

have free surface, they're avascular so they have to drain nutrients
and blood from other structures using diffusion.

What tissue does epithelial tissue sit on?

Connective tissue

Why are most epithelial cells polarized?

Specialized intracellular junction called a tight junction allows for
a separation of what we call the apical domain from the basolateral domain.


The central cavity of a tubular or other hollow structure in an
organism or cell

Superficial fascia

Loose areolar of fatty connective tissue

Deep fascia

Dense irregular connective, invests muscle and bone

Hematoxylin and eosin stain

that red stain you see in most classes. It's what histologists use to
stain and reveal tissues. Most common. (AKA H&E)


stains the acidic components of connective tissue, EC, and underlying muscle

H&E can't differentiate between

CT and muscle

Trichrome stain

used to differentiate CT and skeletal muscle

What are the classic kinds of apical surface specializations?

Cilia, microvilli, and stereocilia

Loose CT

usually underlies epithelial tissue (more cellular)

Dense CT

has fewer cells and more collagen and fiber

Specialized CT

Fat, bone, cartilage and hematopietic

What does dense irregular CT provide?

Severe stiff investment for bone, muscle, and neurovascular
structures that are coursing between them

What it the most common CT?


What are the muscle types?

skeletal, smooth, cardiac

Smooth muscle

changes in size and shape of internal organs and blood vessels. Found
in internal organs.

Skeletal muscle

acts at synovial joints to produce movement (voluntary movement)

Elastic fiber stain

distinguishes collagen from elastic fibers

Somatic nerves

make skeletal muscles contract and convey conscious sensations


muscle position sense

Autonomic nerves

innervate smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands. Convey visceral
sensations, distension, visceral pain


brains and spinal cord


cranial and spinal nerves

How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?


How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?


Spinal nerve

the product of the dorsal and ventral roots joining together

Dorsal root

sensory function

Ventral root

motor function

Cardiac muscle

makes heart walls contract

What kind of muscle are skeletal and cardiac?


Does smooth muscle have striations?


What NS is skeletal muscle controlled by?


Where is somatic nervous system located?

around our skeletal muscle

What nervous system are cardiac and smooth muscle controlled by?



cells that have processes (axon and dendrites)

What does a nerve consist of?

axons and their supporting cells

What do the supporting cells of axons make?

myelin that surrounds axons; myelin speeds up impulse conduction

What do cutaneous branches of spinal nerves supply?

a dermatome


slice of skin

What do the muscular branches of a spinal nerve supply?

a myotome


a specific region of skeletal muscle


branches of spinal nerves

Dorsal ramus

innervates skin of back, deep back muscles, joints between vertebrea.
These generally don't have names and the ones that do don't have any
clinical significance

Ventral ramus

innervates skin, muscles, and joints of body wall and limbs (all have names)