psychology final

dispostionism

behavior to ascribed to a person internal factor stable
characteristic such as personality traits

situationalism

behaviors based on a situation

fundamental attribution error

explaining other people behavior we tend to:
-overestimate the role of personal factors
-overlook impact of situations

confirmation bias

tendency to interpret new evidence as confirmation of ones existing belief

diffusion of responsibilty

less likely to take action when in the presence of something

bystander effect

tendency to avoid helping other people

stereotype

associate a whole group of people with certain traits

racism

prejudice and discrimination based on person background

sexism

prejudice and discrimination based on a person gender

ageism


prejudice or discrimination on the grounds of a
person's age.

foot in the door technique

you literally have to have your foot in the door

aschs study

determine that people will conform to group judgements even when they
are wrong

attitudes

positive and negative or mixed reaction to a person object or idea
expressed at some level of intensity

central

the facts through arguments and evidence

peripheral

object with positive or negative cues

two main types of aggresion

instrumental- doing aggression on purpose
hostile- reactive

sternbergs theory of love 3 factors

intimacy(liking)
commitment
passion(the flame)

cognitive dissonance

attitudes are inconsistent individuals are motivated to reduce that inconsistencey

who studied cognitive dissonance

Festinger and carlsmith

GAS

general adaption syndrome

stages of GAS

alarm phase(rapid)
resistance phase(adaption and coping)
exhaustion phase(collapse)

what it is stress

physical response to internal or external stressors

what is distress

when stress becomes dangerous

what is eustress

beneficial stress

what is coping

facing a stressor and working to overcome it

what is relaxation response


our physical way of reversing the effects of stress
and the physical stress response

what is social support

aid gained through interacting with others

health psychology

subfield of psychology concerned with was psychological factors
influence the causes and treatment of physical illness and maintence
of health

fight or flight response

emotional and physiological reaction to an emergency that increases
readiness for action

what is intake

assessment of clinical needs

confedentiality

can not disclose confedential information to any 3rd party unless
mandated by law

token economy

popular operant conditioning intervention

individual therapy

client and clinician meet one on one usually 45 minutes-1 hour

group therapy

clinician meet together with several clients with similar problems

family therapy

special form of group therapy consisting of one or more of the family members

couple therapy

involves 2 people in an intimate relationship who are having
difficulties and trying to resolve them

play therapy

often used with children

person centered therapy

assumes all individuals have tendency toward growth and this growth
can be facilitated by acceptance

exposure therapy

expose patients to things they feat

systematic desensitization

type of exposure therapy that associated a pleasant relaxed state
with gradually increasing anxiety

biomedical treatments

antipsychotic drugs
antianxiety drugs
antidepressant drugs
mood stabilizer

ECT(electroconvulsive therapy)

treatment that involves inducing a mild seizure by delivering and
electrical shock to the brain

TMS(transcranial magnetic stimulation)

treatment that involves placing a powerful pulsed magnet over a
person scalp

what are asylums

first institutions created for the purpose of housing people with
psychological disorders

deinstitutionalization

closing of large asylums by providing for people to stay in their
communities and be treated locally

correlation

measure how strongly two or more variables are related(relationship)

case studies

detailed description of a particular individual under study

longitudinal

research design in which data gathering is administered repeatedly
over and extended period of time

experimental

used to understand causality control of the situation being studied

dendrites

branching fibers with a surface lined with synaptic receptors

soma/cell body

contains nucleaus

axon

thin fiber of neuron responsible for transmitting nerve impulses
toward other neurons

terminals

end points of an axon where the release of chemicals to communicate
with other neurons

the space between neurons is called

synaptic cleft

action potential

electric signal that is conducted along a neurons axon to a synapse

how many neurons and glia are in the brain?

100 billiion

sensation

stimulation of sensory receptors transmission of sensory into central
nervous system

perception

process by which sensations are organized and interpreted to form an
inner representation of the world

memory

ability to store and retrieve information over time

motivation

purpose for or psychological cause for an action the wants or needs
that directed behavior toward a goal

intrinsic motivation

motivation to take actions that are themselves rewarding(doing it for fun)

extrinsic motivation

motivation to take actions that are not themselves but they lead to rewards