Ch 24: Nutrition, Metabolism, Energy Metabolism

1) Beta oxidation is the initial phase of fatty acid oxidation, and
it occurs in the cytoplasm.

FALSE Section: 24.5

2) The increased use of noncarbohydrate molecules for energy to
conserve glucose is called glucose sparing.

TRUE

3) Except for lactose and some glycogen, the carbohydrates we ingest
are mainly from animals.

FALSE

4) The term essential nutrient refers to the chemicals that can be
interconverted in the liver so that the body can maintain life and
good health.

FALSE

5) The most abundant dietary lipids in the diets of most Americans
are triglycerides.

TRUE

6) There are NO nutritionally complete proteins. All animal products
should be eaten with plant material to make a nutritionally complete protein.

FALSE

7) The body is considered to be in nitrogen balance when the amount
of nitrogen ingested in lipids equals the amount excreted in urine.

FALSE

8) The amount of protein needed by each person is determined by their
age, size, metabolic rate, and the need to build new proteins (whether
the body is in positive nitrogen balance).

TRUE

9) Vitamins are inorganic compounds that are essential for growth and
good health.

FALSE

10) Cellular respiration is an anabolic process.

FALSE

11) The preferred energy fuel for the brain is fat.

FALSE

12) Glycogenesis begins when ATP levels are high, and glucose
entering cells is phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate and converted
to its isomer, glucose-1-phosphate.

TRUE

13) Glycogen accounts for 80-85% of stored energy in the body.

FALSE

14) In order for amino acids to be oxidized for energy, the amine
group (NH2) must be removed.

TRUE

15) When blood glucose levels are low, the body begins to use more
noncarbohydrate fuels for energy production. This process is called
glucose activation.

FALSE

16) Processes that break down complex molecules into simpler ones are anabolic.

FALSE

17) For use as fuel, all food carbohydrates are eventually
transformed to glucose.

TRUE

18) Triglycerides and cholesterol do NOT circulate freely in the bloodstream.

TRUE

19) The major role of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) is to store
energy in the form of fat.

FALSE

20) It would not be healthy to eliminate all fats from your diet
because they serve a useful purpose in maintaining the body.

TRUE

21) Carbohydrate and fat pools are oxidized directly to produce
cellular energy, but amino acid pools must first be converted to a
carbohydrate intermediate before being sent through cellular
respiration pathways.

TRUE

22) High levels of HDLs are considered good.

TRUE

23) Diets high in cholesterol and saturated fats tend to produce high
HDL concentrations.

FALSE

24) Ghrelin, produced by the stomach, is a powerful appetite stimulant.

TRUE

25) Peptides called NPY (neuropeptide Y) and AgRP (agouti-related
peptides) are powerful appetite enhancers.

TRUE

26) The primary function of carbohydrates is energy production within cells.

TRUE

1) The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available
fuel for neurons and blood cells is ________. A) glucose B) protein C)
fat D) acetyl CoA

A

2) Which of the choices below is NOT a fate of carbohydrate taken
into the body? A) amino acid synthesis B) direct conversion to a
nucleic acid C) lipogenesis D) ATP production E) glycogenesis

B

3) Which of the following is the major role of leptin in the body? A)
protect against weight loss during nutritional deprivation B) increase
appetite and food intake C) promote weight loss with activity D)
shrink fat stores

B

4) Cholesterol, though it is NOT an energy molecule, has importance
in the body because it ________. A) is a stabilizing component of the
plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones B)
helps mobilize fats during periods of starvation C) helps provide
essential nutrients to the brain and lungs D) enters the glycolytic
pathway without being altered

A

5) Which of the following statements best describes complete protein?
A) derived from meat and fish only B) must contain all the body's
amino acid requirements for tissue maintenance and growth C) derived
only from legumes and other plant material D) meets all the minimum
daily requirements for a healthy diet

B

6) The term metabolism is best defined as ________. A) a measure of
carbohydrate utilization, typically involving measurement of calories
B) the number of calories it takes to keep from shivering on a cold
day C) the sum of all biochemical reactions in the body D) the length
of time it takes to digest and absorb fats

C

7) When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in
the urine is mostly ________. A) ammonia B) ketone bodies C) urea D)
acetyl CoA

C

8) It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in
vitamins because ________. A) very few foods contain vitamins B) most
vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential
nutrients C) all vitamins are water soluble and pass out of the body
too quickly to ensure utilization D) vitamins provide protection
against the common cold

B

9) Minerals required by the body in moderate amounts include all of
the following EXCEPT ________. A) sulfur and potassium B) sodium and
chlorine C) calcium and phosphorus D) iron and selenium

D

10) Which of the choices below describes the pathway of cellular
respiration (the complete oxidation of glucose)? A) lipolysis,
glycogenolysis, beta oxidation B) glycogenesis, lipogenesis, electron
transport chain C) glycolysis, citric acid (Krebs) cycle, electron
transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation D) gluconeogenesis, citric
acid (Krebs) cycle, lipolysis

C

11) Anabolism includes reactions in which ________. A) structural
proteins are used as a potential energy source B) ketone bodies are
formed C) carbohydrate utilization increases D) larger molecules or
structures are built from smaller ones

D

12) Catabolism would be best described as a process that ________. A)
breaks down complex structures to simpler ones B) elevates glucagon
levels C) builds up triglycerides during the postabsorptive state D)
causes a decline in circulating ketone bodies

A

13) The primary function of cellular respiration is to ________. A)
break down food molecules and generate ATP B) provide the body with
adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals C) efficiently monitor the
energy needs of the body D) determine the amount of heat needed by the
human body

A

14) The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and
fatty acids is known as ________. A) fat utilization B) lipogenesis C)
gluconeogenesis D) lipolysis

D

15) Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during
cellular respiration? A) oxidative phosphorylation B) oxidation
reactions C) lactic acid production D) substrate-level phosphorylation

A

16) Lipogenesis occurs when ________. A) glucose levels drop slightly
B) excess proteins are transported through the cell membrane C) there
is a shortage of fatty acids D) cellular ATP and glucose levels are high

D

17) Oxidative deamination takes place in the ________. A) muscles B)
brain C) liver D) blood

C

18) Glycogen is formed in the liver during the ________. A) period
when the metabolic rate is lowest B) postabsorptive state C)
starvation period D) absorptive state

D

19) Which of the following is a normal consequence of the activation
of the heat-promoting center? A) vasodilation of cutaneous blood
vessels B) sympathetic sweat gland activation C) increase in ADH
production D) release of epinephrine

D

20) Gluconeogenesis is the process in which ________. A) glucose is
converted into carbon dioxide and water B) glucose is formed from
noncarbohydrate molecules C) glycogen is formed D) glycogen is broken
down to release glucose

B

21) Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the
________. A) conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
B) conversion of glucose into carbon dioxide and water C) formation of
sugar D) conversion of pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water

A

22) What is the outcome of ketosis? A) glucogenesis B) water
retention and edema C) metabolic acidosis D) glycogen buildup E)
metabolic alkalosis

C

23) Which of the choices below happens during the absorptive state?
A) Only glucose metabolism occurs. B) Catabolic processes exceed
anabolic ones. C) Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones. D) No
metabolism occurs.

C

24) In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet,
proteins are essential to the body for all of the following EXCEPT
________. A) production of enzymes, clotting factors, and antibodies
B) production of energy C) formation of functional molecules like
hemoglobin and cytochromes D) production of some hormones

B

25) The most abundant dietary lipids are ________. A) phospholipids
B) fatty acids C) triglycerides D) cholesterol

C

26) The ingestion of which nutrient type results in the greatest
food-induced thermogenesis? A) carbohydrates B) vitamins C) proteins
D) lipids

C

27) Which hormone directs essentially all the events of the
absorptive state? A) epinephrine B) growth hormone C) thyroid hormone
D) insulin

D

28) Prostaglandins play a role in ________. A) noninflammatory
responses B) control of blood volume C) skeletal muscle contraction D)
control of blood pressure

D

29) As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive
state, the ________ continues to burn glucose while virtually every
other organ in the body switches to fatty acids as its major energy
source. A) pancreas B) spleen C) liver D) brain

D

30) In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids
and ________ are converted to glucose. A) glucagon B) glycerol C)
glycogen D) acetyl Co A

B

31) In the liver, the amine group of glutamic acid is removed as
________ in the oxidative state. A) pyruvic acid B) oxaloacetic acid
C) glyceraldehyde D) ammonia

D

32) Which of the choices below is NOT a mechanism of heat production?
A) enhanced thyroxine release B) sweating C) vasoconstriction of
cutaneous blood vessels D) shivering

B

33) Heat-loss mechanisms do NOT include ________. A) reducing
activity B) the evaporation of sweat C) vasoconstriction of peripheral
blood vessels D) behavior measures such as wearing light, loose clothing

C

34) The amount of ________ produced is probably the most important
hormonal factor in determining basal metabolic rate (BMR). A)
prolactin B) norepinephrine C) ADH D) thyroxine

D

35) When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large
amounts, it usually indicates increased metabolism of ________. A)
amino acids B) lactic acid C) glycogen D) fatty acids

D

36) Many factors influence basal metabolic rate (BMR). What is the
most critical factor? A) an individual's body weight B) the way
skeletal muscles break down glycogen C) the ratio of surface area to
volume (weight) of the body D) the way an individual metabolizes fat

C

37) The ________ acts as the body's thermostat. A) hypothalamus B)
skin C) liver D) epithalamus

A

38) Which of the choices below is NOT a mechanism of heat transfer
used by the body? A) shivering B) evaporation C) conduction/convection
D) radiation

A

39) Which of the following statements is FALSE? A) Excess
carbohydrate and fat can be stored as such, whereas excess amino acids
are oxidized for energy or converted to fat or glycogen for storage.
B) Fats and carbohydrates are oxidized directly to produce cellular
energy. C) The amino acid pool is the body's total supply of amino
acids in the body's proteins. D) Amino acids can be used to supply
energy only after being converted to a citric acid cycle intermediate.

C

40) Which of the following is a source of complex carbohydrates? A)
soda B) fruit juice C) potatoes D) pudding

C

41) Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of
energy per gram when metabolized? A) vitamins and minerals B) proteins
C) foods and beverages high in caffeine D) fats

D

42) Which of the following does NOT occur in the mitochondria? A)
glycolysis B) electron transport C) formation of malic acid from
fumaric acid D) citric acid (Krebs) cycle

A

43) Which of the following is NOT true of beta oxidation? A) Fatty
acids are broken into acetic acid fragments. B) It involves the
anabolism of fats. C) It occurs in the mitochondria. D) The carbon in
the beta (third) position is oxidized during the process.

B

44) Select the correct statement about proteins. A) Proteins will be
used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are
ingested. B) All proteins can be synthesized in the body if most of
the amino acids are present. C) Strict vegetarians need not worry
about adequate protein intake, as most vegetables are almost perfect
sources of amino acids. D) Catabolic steroids (hormones) accelerate
the rate of protein synthesis.

A

45) Oxidation reduction reactions ________. A) occur via the gain of
hydrogen or the loss of oxygen B) utilize hydrogenases C) are rarely
coupled together D) may involve the loss of hydrogen and electrons

D

46) What process primes a molecule to change in a way that increases
its activity, produces motion, or does work? A) beta oxidation B)
cellular respiration C) phosphorylation D) glycolysis

C

47) Which of the choices below is NOT a source of blood glucose
during the postabsorptive state? A) absorption of glucose from the GI
tract B) glycogenolysis in the liver C) lipolysis in adipose tissues
and the liver D) catabolism of cellular protein

A

48) Which of the following is correct? A) Most of the ATP are
produced by substrate-level phosphorylation. B) Glycolysis relies on
substrate-level oxidation for the four ATP produced in this pathway.
C) Each FADH2 yields about 1.5 ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. D)
Most ATP from cellular respiration are produced directly in the citric
acid (Krebs) cycle.

C

49) Which of the following food groups are considered good sources of
complete proteins? A) egg yolk, fish roe, and grains B) corn,
cottonseed oil, soy oil, and wheat germ C) eggs, milk, yogurt, meat,
and fish D) lima beans, kidney beans, nuts, and cereals

C

50) Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use
of amino acids include ________. A) ammonia combining with oxygen to
form urea B) adequate essential amino acids C) adequate fat calories
to provide adequate ATP formation D) excessive amounts of protein in
the diet

D

51) Glucose can be obtained from ________. A) triglyceride anabolism
B) glycogenolysis C) lipogenesis D) protein anabolism

B

52) Which of the following is NOT a function of
low-density-lipoproteins (LDLs)? A) transport cholesterol from the
peripheral tissues to the liver B) make cholesterol available to
tissue cells for membrane formation C) make cholesterol available to
tissue cells for hormone synthesis D) assist in the storage of
cholesterol when supply exceeds demand

A

53) Which of the following best defines negative nitrogen balance? A)
A negative nitrogen balance is normal and is a way of maintaining
homeostasis. B) It is a condition usually caused by having a diet low
in fish and meat. C) Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis. D)
It occurs when amino acids are broken down by liver enzymes and
carried to the bloodstream.

C

54) Red blood cells lack mitochondria. As a result, ATP production is
solely through ________. A) glycolysis B) electron transport chain C)
citric acid (Krebs) cycle D) aerobic respiration

A

55) In India, rice is a large part of the diet. Lack of which vitamin
in rice would lead to higher levels of blindness in this population?
A) vitamin A B) vitamin E C) vitamin C D) vitamin D

A

56) Which term describes the action of an endurance runner the night
before the race as she "carbo-loads" when eating a large
pasta dinner? A) glycogenesis B) glycogenolysis C) glycolysis D) gluconeogenesis

A

57) Several hours after your last meal, declining blood glucose
levels stimulate release of the hormone ________, which stimulates
glycogenolysis, lipolysis and fat mobilization, and gluconeogenesis.
A) glucagon B) thyroxine C) cortisol D) insulin

A

58) At the conclusion of glycolysis, most of glucose's chemical
energy is found in the ________. A) NADH B) ATP C) acetyl CoA D)
pyruvic acid molecules

D

59) While traveling abroad in Africa you observe a large number of
people with goiter (enlarged thyroid). Which mineral deficiency could
be responsible for this? A) iodine B) chromium C) fluorine D) iron

A

60) A recent health screening revealed a low-density-lipoprotein
(LDL) level over 130. Which of the following should be prescribed? A)
insulin B) statins C) iron D) glucagon

B