Final Exam Review- Psyc2314

The science of human development is an attempt to understand what?

how and why people change over time

Human development focuses on what types of people?

All types

What is the nature vs. nurture debate?

innate (nature) qualities compare to personal (nurture) experience

What is a cohort?

generational group

Psychoanalytic theories believe human development is determined by what?

unconscious and instinctual drives

_______________ is changes in neural connections during development
as result of environmental interaction and learning

Plasticity

___________________ is Erikson's first crisis of psychosocial
development. Infants learn basic trust if the world is a secure place
where their basic needs (for food, comfort, attention) are met

Trust vs. mistrust

Dr. Bloom wanted to learn if ice cream preferences were different at
different stages of development. For her study, she conducted a
one-time assessment in which she asked a group of 5-year olds, a group
of 15-year-olds, and a group of 30-year olds to identify their ice
cream preferences. Dr. Bloom conducted a ______________________.

cross-sectional study

_________________ is research design that compares groups of people
who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics.

Cross-sectional research study

The foundation of cognitive theory is _____________________.

a person's thoughts and expectations

_______________________ is a research design in which the same
individuals are followed over time, as their development is repeatedly assessed

longitudinal research study

A ___________________ is a hybrid research design in which
researchers 1st study several groups of people of different ages
(cross-sectional approach) and then follow those groups over the years
(a longitudinal approach)

cross-sequential research study

How does human development biologically begin?

fertilization

Monozygotic twins have ____________________of their genes in common.

1

Dizygotic twins have ________________of their genes in common.

0.5

A ______________ is an agent or condition, including viruses, drugs,
and chemicals, that can impair prenatal development and result in
birth defects or even death.

teratogen

What are brain cells called?

Neurons

What part of the brain assists in self-control?

prefrontal cortex

_______________ are physical abilities involving large body
movements, such as walking and jumping

gross motor skills

What are fine motor skills?

Small movements

What are the benefits of breast milk?

provides antibodies to fight diseases.

What are the two elements of adaptation (according to Piaget)?

assimilation and accommodation.

____________________ occurs between 9 to 14 months when an infant
feels distressed when caregiver leaves

separation anxiety

How do people become �fixated� in a Freudian stage?

Their normal developmental urges are frustrated.

What may happen if a person becomes �fixated� in the oral stage?

problems with drinking, eating, smoking, or nail-biting.

___________________ is Erikson's second crisis of psychosocial
development. Toddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a sense of
self-rule over their actions and their bodies.

Autonomy vs. shame and doubt

What is social learning?

Learning from someone

According to Ainsworth, "an affectional tie" that an infant
forms with a care giver is called ___________________.

attachment

What part of the brain controls one�s impulses?

Frontal lobe

What part of the brain is crucial in expressing and regulating emotions?

limbic system- amygdala

What is the function of the hippocampus?

Long term memory

What is egocentrism, according to Piaget?

inability on the part of the child in preoperational stage of
development to see any point of view other than their own

________________ is the tendency to focus on one aspect of situation
and neglect other (possibly relevant) aspects

centration

When child in early childhood falsely believes that actions cannot be
reversed or undone this is called ____________________.

irreversibility

_________________ is the characteristic of preoperational though
where by young child thinks that nothing changes- whatever is will
always be

static reasoning

What is guided participation, according to Vygotsky?

specific type of scaffolding, adults=model child=apprentice

How did Vygotsky believe language advanced thinking in children?

he believed children's thinking is affected by social knowledge
communicated by either psychological (lang, #, art) /technical (book,
calculator) means

__________________ is an approach to child rearing that is
characterized by high nurturance and communication but little
discipline, guidance, or control

permissive parenting

_______________ is a approach to child rearing that is characterized
by high behavioral standards, strict punishments for misconduct, and
little communication from child to parent

Authoritarian parenting

____________________ is the approach to child reading in which the
parents set limits but listen to the child and are flexible

Authoritative parenting

How is the �Oedipus complex� successfully resolved?

a child's identification w/same sex parents is the successful
resolution of the complex

A girl's psychosexual competition with her mother for possession of
father is called the __________________.

�electra complex�

What is BMI?

body mass index- measure body fat based on weight in relation to height

___________________ is a perspective that compares human thinking
processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory
input, connections, stored memories and output.

Information-processing theory

________________ is designed to determine a persons ability in a
particular skill or field of knowledge.

Aptitude tests

What are achievement tests?

test of developed skill or knowledge

What is the DSM-IV?

diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. standard
criteria for classification of mental disorders

In what stage in Piaget�s theory does egocentrism decrease?

between 15-16 during adolescence

An old disagreement over how to teach children to read (whole
language vs phonics) is known as __________________.

reading wars

________________ is the 4th of Erikson's eight psychosocial cries,
during which children attempt to master many skills, developing a
sense of themselves as either industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent

industry vs. Inferiority

____________________ focuses on how people process, store and apply
info about others and social situations focuses on role that cognitive
processes play in social interactions

Social cognition

Need to control and dominate others, quick tempered, impulsive,
pleasure in seeing others in distress, difficult to see others view,
feel superior, intolerant of differences are common characteristics of _____________.

bullies

How did Kohlberg measure morality?

how people justify behaviors, ethical behavior

Lawrence Kohlberg built on the theories of whom?

Piaget

Why was Kohlberg�s theory criticized (same as why Piaget�s theory)?

emphasizes justice to the exclusion of other moral values such as
caring, overlap of stages

_________________ is a sex hormone, the best known of the androgens;
secreted in far greater amounts by males than females

Testosterone

Why are adolescents nutritional habits poor?

bad choices

A David Elkind theroy that adolescent inability to distinguish
between their perception of what others think about them and what
people actually think in reality is _________________.

adolescent egocentrism

Egocentric state where an individual imagines and believes that
multitudes of people are listening or watching him or her is an ______________________.

imaginary audience

________________ is reasoning from a general statement, premise, or
principle, through logical steps, to figure out specifics. Ex: All
Christians believe in the bible, and Josiah is a Christian; therefore
Josiah believes in the Bible.

deductive reasoning

Three different girls tell Brian that Beauty and the Beast
is their all-time favorite movie. He concludes that all girls
love that Movie. Brain has just used ____________________.

Inductive reasoning

__________________ is reasoning from one or more specific experiences
or facts to reach a general conclusion.

Inductive reasoning

_______________ is critical component of visual thinking that gives
one the ability to solve problems quickly and effectively

Analytic thinking

According to Erikson, the ultimate adolescent psychosocial goal is
identity ________________________.

achievement

what is the goal of adolescence according to Erikson?

identity vs role confusion- to form identity

_____________ is an adolescent's choice of a socially acceptable way
to postpone making identity-achievement decisions. Ex: going to college

moratorium

_________________ is a person's acceptance of the roles and behaviors
that society associates with the biological categories of male and female.

Gender identity

____________ is the outward manifestation of personality that reflect
the gender identity

Gender role

__________________ is encouragement to conform to one friends or
contemporaries in behavior, dress, and attitude, usually considered a
negative force, as when adolescent peers encourage one another to defy
adult authority.

Peer pressure

_______________ is thinking about suicide, usually with some serious
emotional and intellectual or cognitive overtones.

suicidal ideation

__________________ is a person whose criminal activity stops by the
age 21.

adolescent-limited offender

What is emerging adulthood? When does it occur?

between the ages 18-25

Which are Sternberg�s three components of love are influenced by the
social context?

commitment

Adulthood covers what four decades of life?

25-65

A gradual physical decline related to aging is known as _________________.

senescence

______________ is a term coined to signify a drop in testosterone
levels in older men, also known as male menopause.

Andropause

An individual who is obese has a BMI of what?

30 or higher

In ___________________ basic mental abilities peak and fluid
intelligence declines earlier than crystalized intelligence

middle adulthood

What does �g� refer to?

general intelligence

When children score 5-25 points higher on IQ test than their parents
is is called the _________________.

Flynn effect

_________________ is basic mental abilities; inductive reason,
abstract analysis, reaction speed and working memory

Fluid intelligence

_______________________ is ability to analyze and evaluate ideas,
solve problems and make decisions

Analytical intelligence

What intelligence is prized whenever life circumstances change?

creative

What is generativity vs. stagnation?

7th stage of psychosocial development- generativity is the goal of
adulthood including precreation, creativity and fulfilling parental
and social responsibility for next generation

When to get married is referred to as the _______________.

social clock

At what age do personality traits become stable?

30

Does extroversion increase or decrease with age?

decrease

_____________ is the scientific study of old age.

gerontology

________ refers to other individuals judging people on the basis of
chronological age.

Ageism

What is the leading cause of death for men and women?

cardiovascular disease

What is the maximum life span for humans?

122

_____________ is irreversible pathological loss of brain function

Dementia

What is the most common cause of dementia?

Alzheimer's disease

Abraham Maslow believed what type of adults (age group) are able to
reach self-actualization?

Older adults

_______________ involves an integration of knowledge, experience, and
deep understanding that incorporates tolerance for the uncertainties
of life as well as its ups and downs

Wisdom

What is ego integrity vs. despair?

...

________________ is a model of social relations-individuals go
through life embedded in a personal network of individuals from who
they give and receive social support

Social convoy

__________________ is the intentional act or failure to act by
caregiver or another person in relationship involving expectation of
trust that causes or creates risk of harm to elder

Elder maltreatment

________________ is the study of death and dying especially of social
and emotional aspects.

Thantology

In every culture, religion plays what role at death?

Hope

What are the stages of death, according to Kubler-Ross?

denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance

Do the stages of death always occur in sequence?

No

_________________ is not designed to treat an illness but to provide
physical and emotional comfort to patient and support guidance to family.

Palliative care

______________ is a ceremony and behavior of religion or culture to
express their bereavement after death.

Mourning

__________ is sorrow felt at death of another.

Grief

A _____________ is a document that indicates what kinds of medical
intervention an individual wants or does not want if they become
incapable of expressing those wishes

living will

During identity moratorium, adolescents typically __________________.

take on a temporary role and postpone identity-achievement decisions