Extra set of questions Flashcards

A simple stain with a basic dye will color the inside of a bacterial
cell. Explain why this occurs?

All bacterial cells
have a slightly negative charged and if you add a
positively charged it will attract and make a cell stained.

Identify each of the staining techniques, as simple, differential, special.
capsule=acid-fast=crystal violet=gram
stain=flagella stain=

violet=simplegram stain=differentialflagella stain=special

Describe the simple stain process including the smear?

so you take water (half-drop) & smear it on the slide. then you
take a (half drop) of the bacteria and smear it thin so light can
shine through the microscope. we then air dry it. the heat it for a
minute so you can kill it/see it through the slide. then you stain it
and cells are negative. then you paper dry it

what information will you obtain about a microbe from the simple
stain process?

you can the shape, size, and arrangement. they can be in clusters,
pairs or groups

gram (-) vs gram (+)

gram (-): pink, has a thin peptidoglycan &
has an outer
membrane. alcohol dissolves the outer membrane
and leaves holes in peptidoglycan. it's
porous and empty & turns pink

gram (+):
purple, has a thick peptidoglycan &
has no outer
membrane. the alcohol dehydrates
peptidoglycan. the CV-1
crystals stays and that's why it stays purple.

list 2 detrimental & 2 beneficial characteristics of fungi?

detrimental (harmful): spoilage, allergies (pathogens make toxins)
beneficial: make food, be food, decompose organic material

what do we call a fungus that can be mold/yeast?


what structures gives the protists a greater pathogenic ability?

flagella, protein-shield (ability to change the antigens), reproduce,
cysts stage (resistant to..)

list 2 ways to avoid contracting a helminthic disease?

sanitize hands, cook your meat thoroughly, wear shoes outside

why don't we categorize viruses as living cells?

b/c they need a host to spread the virus & live on the host &
to survive
- viruses are not able to replicate
- don't have their own enzymes
- no metabolism
-no proteins

How is anaerobic respiration differ from aerobic respiration?

anaerobic: w/o O2; produces less energy, uses electron acceptors
other than O2
aerobic: produces hydrogen sulfide; creates water/ cellular energy
involving O2 ; cells break down food in mitochondria produces roughly
32 ATP

would a chemical microbial control agent that affects the plasma
membrane affect humans?

yes; b/c detergent & bleach can kill bacterial, however can stain
or burn a humans hand

list the 2 possible ways bacteria can harm?

horizontal gene transfer, random genetic, cross-linking

Explain why diseases caused by fungi, protozoa, and helminths are
harder to treat than bacterial infections?

b/c they can change their membrane permeability & shape. or they
can appear inside a cell which is harder to find. the have different
defenses, different virulence factors. The protozoan, helminths, and
fungi are all eukaryotes & we are too, the same ribosomes, and
plasma membranes. Our cells are so similar that it can toxic to us

What can be chemical factor of the 1st line of innate immune system?

saliva & urine b/c it has lysozyme, which inhibit peptidoglycan
(gram +)

Describe what the lymphatic system does?

it is responsible of loss fluid b/c our vesicles are permeable. by
collecting that fluid * bringing it back up. it filters out anything
thats harmful as it goes up.

is vaccination an example of innate or adaptive immunity?

adaptive b/c it induces resistance to a specific antigen

Why doesn't the adaptive immune system normally attack your own body tissues?

our nametag (MHC), tells our messengers not to attack it.
*clonal deliation