Exam 4 Flashcards

Foot eversion

Peroneus Longus
Peroneus Brevis
Peroneus Tertius
Extensor Digitorum Longus

Foot inversion

Tibialis Anterior
Tibialis Posterior

Knee lateral rotation

Biceps femoris

Knee flexion

Biceps femoris

Ankle plantar flexion


Hip external rotation

Obturator internus
obturator externus
quadratus femoris

Hip flexion

rectus femoris

Hip extension

Glute max
biceps femoris

knee meidal rotation


Hip ADduction

Adductor brevis
adductor longus
adductor agnus

Ankle dorsiflexion

tibialis anterior
extensor hallicus longus
extensor digitorum longus
peroneus tertius

Knee extension

rectus femoris
vastus lateralis
vastus medialis
vastus intermedius

Hip ABduction

Glute med
Glute min

Hip internal rotation

glute med
glute min

GH external rotation

teres minor

GH ABduction

mid deltoid

GH ADduction

pec minor
teres major
latissimus dorsi

GH horizontal ADduction

Pec major
anterior deltoid

GH horizontal ABduction

posterior deltoid

GH internal rotation

Pec major
latissimus dorsi
teres major

GH extension

posterior deltoid
teres major
latissimus dorsi
pec major

GH flexion

anterior deltoid
pec major

girdle elevation

levator scapulae

girdle depression

lower trapezius
latissimus dorsi
pec major
pec minor

girdle ABduction

Serratus anterior
pec major
pec minor

girdle ADduction


girdle upward rotation

serratus anterior

girdle downward rotation

levator scapulae
pec minor

After mixing a heat- killed, phosphorescent (light- emitting) strain
of bacteria with a living, nonphosphorescent strain, you discover that
some of the living cells are now phosphorescent. Which observation(s)
would provide the best evidence that the ability to phosphorescence is
a heritable trait

Phosphorescence in descendants of the living cells

Cytosine makes up 42% of the nucleotides in a sample of DNA from an
organism. Approximately what percentage of he nucleotides in this
sample will be thymine?


Individuals with the disorder xeroderma pigmentosum are
hypersensitive to sunlight. This occurs because their cells cannot

Repair thymine dimers

The difference between ATP and the nucleoside triphosphates used
during DNA synthesis is that

The nucleoside triphosphates have the sugar deoxyribose; ATP has the
sugar ribose

Suppose you are provided with an actively diving culture of E. coli
bacteria to which radioactive thymine has been added. What would
happen if a cell replicates once in the presence of this radioactive base?

DNA in both daughter cells would be radioactive

In the late 1950's , Meselson and Stahl grew bacteria in a medium
containing "heavy" nitrogen (^15N) and then transferred them
to a medium containing ^14N. Which of the results in the
figure above would be expected after one round of
DNA replication in the presence of ^14N?


A space probe returns with a culture of a microorganism found on a
distant planet. Analysis shows that it is a carbon- based life- form
that has DNA. You grow the cells in ^15N medium for several
generations and then transfer them to ^14N medium. Which pattern in
the figure above would you expect if the DNA was
replicated in a conservative manner?


The DNA of telomeres has been highly conserved throughout the
evolution of eukaryotes. This most likely reflects

A critical function of telomeres

You briefly expose bacteria undergoing DNA replication to
radioactively labeled deoxynucleotides. When you centrifuge the DNA
isolated from the bacteria, the DNA separates into two classes. One
class of labeled DNA includes very large molecules (thousands or even
millions of nucleotides long), and the other includes short stretches
of DNA (several hundred to a few thousand nucleotides in length).
These two classes of DNA probably represent

Leading strands and Okazaki fragments

DNA contains the template needed to copy itself, but it has no
catalytic activity in cells. What catalyzes the formation of
phosphodiester bonds between adjacent nucleotides in the DNA polymer
being formed?

DNA polymerase

What provides the energy for the polymerization reactions in DNA synthesis?

The deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate substrates

Which of the following cells have reduced or very little activity
telomerase activity?

Most normal somatic cells

Researchers found in E. coli that had mutation rats one hundred times
higher than normal. Which of the following is the most likely cause of
these results?

The proofreading mechanism of DNA polymerase was not working properly

In E. coli replication the enzyme primase is used to attach a 5 to 10
base ribnucleotide strand complementary to the parental DNA strand.
The RNA strand serves as a starting point for the DNA polymerase that
replicates the DNA. If a mutation occurred in the primase gene, which
of he following would you expect?

Replication would not occur on either the leading or lagging strand

Garrod hypothesized that "inborn errors of metabolism" such
as alkaptonuria occur because

Genes dicate the production of specific enzymes, and affected
individuals have genetic defects that cause them to lack certain enzymes

The genetic code is essentially the same for all organisms.
From this, one can logically assume which of the following?

A gene from an organism can theoretically be expressed by any other organism

Which of the following occurs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Concurrent transcription and translation

Refer to the metabolic pathway illustrated above. If A, B, and C are
all required for growth, a strain that is mutant for the gene-
encoding enzyme A would be able to grow on medium supplemented with

Nutrients A and C

A possible sequence of nucleotides in the template strand of DNA that
would code for the polypeptide sequence phe-leu-ile-val would be


Refer to the figure above. What would the anticodon be for a tRNA
that transports phenylalanine to a ribosome?


Codons are three- base sequences that specify the addition of a
single amino acid. How do eukaryotic codons and prokaryotic codons compare?

Codons are a nearly universal language among all organisms

The most commonly occurring mutation in people with cystic fibrosis
is a deletion of a single codon. This results in

A polypetide missing an amino acid

Once researchers identified DNA as a unit of inheritance, they asked
how information was transferred from the DNA in the nucleus to the
site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm. What is the mechanism of
information transfer in eukaryotes?

Messenger RNA is transcribed from a single gene and transfers
information from the DNA in the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where
protein synthesis takes place

Alternative RNA splicing ____

Can allow the production of proteins of different sizes and functions
from a single mRNA

In the structural organization of many eukaryotic genes, individual
exons may be related to which of the following?

The various domains of the polypeptide product

In an experimental situation, a student researcher inserts an mRNA
molecule into a eukaryotic cell after she has removed its 5' cap and
poly-A tail. Which of the following would you expect her to find?

The molecule is digested by enzymes because it is not protected at
the 5' end.

A mutant bacterial cell has a defective aminoacyl- tRNA synthase that
attaches a lysine tRNA's with the anticodon AAA instead of the normal
phenylalanine. The consequence of this for the cell will be that

Proteins in the cell will include lysine instead of phenylalanine at
amino acid positions specified by the codon UUU

A signal peptide

Helps target a protein to the ER

The dipeptide will form will be

Proline- threonine

The figure above represents tRNA that recognizes and binds a
particular amino acid ( in this instance, phenylalanine). Which codon
on the mRNA strand codes for this amino acid?


The tRNA shown i the figure above has its 3' end projecting beyond
its 5' end. What will occur at this 3' end?

The amino acid binds covently

Which of the following types of mutation, resulting in an error in
the mRNA just after the AUG start of translation, is likely to have
the most serious effect on the polypeptide product?

A deletion of two nucleotides

Of the following, which is the most current description of a gene?

A DNA sequence that is expressed to form a functional product: either
RNA or polypeptide

A mutation that inactivates a regulatory gene of a repressible operon
in an E. coli cell would result in

Continuous transcription of the structural gene controlled by that regulator

Forms of Ras protein found in tumors usually cause which of the following?

Excessive cell division

The lactose operon is likely to be transcribed when

The cyclic AMP and lactose levels are bot high within the cell

In positive control of several sugar- metabolism- related operons,
the catabolite activator protein (CAP) binds to DNA to stimulate
transcription. What causes an increase in CAP activity in stimulating transcription?

A decrease in glucose and a n increase in cAMP

There is a mutation in the repressor that results in a molecule known
as a super- repressor because it represses the lac operon permanently.
Which of these would characterize such a mutant?

It cannot bind to the inducer

Suppose an experimenter becomes proficient with a technique that
allows her to move DNA sequences within a prokaryotic genome. If she
moves the repressor gene (lacI), along with its promoter, to a
position at some several thousand base pairs away from its normal
position, we would expect the

lac operon will function normally

Extracellular glucose inhibits transcription of the lac operon by

Reducing the levels on intracellular cAMP

CAP is said to be responsible for positive regulation of the lac
operon because

CAP bound to the CAP- binding site increase the frequency of
transcription initiation

Imagine that you've isolated a yeast mutant that contains histones
resistant to acetylation. What phenotype do you predict for this mutant?

The mutant will show low levels of gene expression

The reason for differences in the sets of proteins expressed in a
nerve and a pancreatic cell of the same individual is that nerve and
pancreatic cells contain different

Sets of regulatory proteins

In one set of experiments she succeeded in increasing acetylation of
histone tails. Which of the following results would she most likely see?

Decreased chromatin condensation

One of her colleagues suggested she try increased methylation of C
nucleotides in the DNA of promoters of a mammalian system. Which of
the following results would she most likely see?

Inactivation of the selected genes

At the beginning of this century there was a general announcement
regarding the sequence of the human genome and the genomes of many
other muiltcellular eukaryotes. Many people were surprised that the
number of protein- coding sequences was much smaller than they had
expected. Which of the following could account for much of the DNA
that is not coding for proteins?

Non- protein coding DNA that is transcribed into several kinds of
RNAs with biological function

A researcher introduces double- stranded RNA into a culture of
mammalian cells and can identify its location using a fluorescent
probe. When she finds that the introduced strand separates into a
single- stranded RNA's, what other evidence of this single- stranded
RNA piece's activity can she find?

The rate of accumulation of the polypeptide encoded by the target
mRNA is reduced

Your brother has just purchased a new plastic model airplane. He
places all the parts on the table in approximately the positions in
which they will be located when the model is complete. His actions are
analogous to which process in development?

Pattern formation

The bicoid gene product is normally localized to the anterior end of
the embryo. If large amounts of the product were injected into the
posterior end as well, which of the following would occur?

Anterior structures would form in both ends of the embryo

Which of the following types of mutation would convert a proto-
oncogene into an oncogene?

A mutation that greatly increases the amount of the proto- oncogene protein