Psych of Personality Last Unit Exam Flashcards

the emphasis of humanism is on what

overall dignity and worth of human beings

Humanists oppose the 1st force (psychoanalytic) theory by saying it
is what?


Humanists oppose the 2nd force (behaviorism) by saying it is what?


Humanism is the 3rd force and it says that humans are innately ______


When was Freud born?
When was Adler born?
When was Horney born?
When was Erikson born?


When was Skinner born?
When was Bandura born?
When was Rotter born?
When was Allport born?


When was Cattell born?
When was Eysenck born?
When was Rogers born?
When was Maslow born?


What are Carl Rogers "Claims to Fame"?

person centered therapy
he is the "other" humanist
first to tape therapy sessions
theory used in edu alot

What is significant about Roger's life?

he was the first theorist to be trained in clinical psychology

What are the 2 aspects of personality that are important to
humanists? Explain them.

organism- physical creature with physical and psychological functions
self- organized, consistent, whole composed of PERCEPTIONS of I or Me
(core of personality)
(subjective reality - self)

What is the single motivational force of the organism? (Rogers)

the self-actualizing tendency
this motivates us to survive and more forward
constant growth
***NOT EASY - painful but we push ourself

According to Rogers, what is the organismic valuing process?

we evaluate experiences and options according to how well they serve
the self actualizing tendency
"are these experiences helping you grow?"
this is why we persevere despite pain and frustration

What is experiential field and what other theorist and idea is
similar to this?

it is who we encounter through life
similar to Eriksons radius of significant relations

What is our self concept according to Rogers? (3 things)

1. what we are
2. what we should be
3. what we'd like to be
1=2=3 > healthy

what is the real self?

how you are now and your perceptions of how you are

what is the ideal self?

how and what you would like to be

If there is congruence between the real and ideal self what does that
mean? What if there is discrepancy?

congruence: maturity and mental health
discrepancy: dissatisfaction and maladjustment (maladjustment is
more severe form of dissatisfaction)

Positive regard

when other people think of you in a positive way
all people need this

Unconditional positive regard

people value you as a person no matter what you do , no conditions
placed on my caring about you
"I love you even when you screw up

Conditional positive regard

I will think of you as being worthwhile as long as you meet certain conditions
ex. Nathan Scott in OTH with sports
can be grades, manners, etc

Conditions of Worth

internalization of other peoples conditional positive regard
comes from too much conditional positive regard

What are the characteristics of a fully functioning person?

1. Awareness/Acknowledgement/ Acceptance
2. Live fully and in the moment
3. Trust in the organism (yourself)
4. Freedom to make choices

What do the 3 A's of being a fully functioning person mean (Rogers)?

Awareness: recognize strengths and weaknesses
Acknowledgement: see that you may have flaws and know its okay
Acceptance: for yourself and others (who you are)

Rogers assessment

tape recording sessions

What is a Q Sort and how does it work?

uses statements about the self- person sorts based on how much the
statement is like them or is not
pre and post therapy
real and ideal self
early attempt at outcomes research- good for insurance companies

Maslows major contributions

founder of humanistic psychology
hierarchy of needs

What is significant about Maslow's life?

He had a hard childhood and didnt feel like he fit in except with his
uncle and cousins and then he married Bertha Goodman (1st cousin)
He was trained as a behaviorist - Watson and Harlow
influenced by birth of his daughter and the war

Hierarchy of Needs

lower needs are stronger
everyone starts at bottom
higher needs later in life and can be postponed or not exist at all
don't have to completely satisfy to move up
stronger needs need satisfied more

What makes up the first (bottom) level of the hierarchy?

Physiological Needs - food water air sleep proper temp and sex

Physiological needs are usually satisfied to what percentage? When
are they most important?

when 1st born cause someone else must satisfy them for you

What makes up the second level of the hierarchy?

Safety needs - feel safe secure and protected from harm

Safety needs are usually satisfied to what percentage? When are these
most important?

toddlers and adults with developmental disabilities
ex. Little Albert - kids scare easily

What makes up the 3rd level of the hierarchy?

Belongingness and Love needs - Affection (give and receive),
Affiliation ( belong to a group - important in childhood through
adulthood), Acceptance ( like unconditional positive regard)

To what percentage are Belongingness and Love needs usually satisfied?


What makes up the 4th level of the hierarchy?

Esteem Needs
Self Esteem: valuing yourself and healthy self concept
Other Esteem: other people respect you and having other people hold
you in high regard

To what percentage are Esteem needs usually fulfilled?


What are the 4 bottom levels of the hierarchy called?

D Needs
if not filled adequately, then something is missing and needs filled

What is the top level of the hierarchy?

Self Actualization - fulfilling your true potential
be all that you can be
level where we are most unique - each individual has their own potential
some may look at these people as weird or crazy (Ghandi)
not being concerned with what other people think of you

The top level of the Hierarchy is called what compared to the D needs
at the bottom?

B needs
Growth needs
Being needs

To what percentage do we fulfill self actualization?


What results if you reach the top of the hierarchy and the needs
arent satisfied?

metapathologies - more painful to come close and not reach the goal
than it is to not try at all
like coming in second

To what percent do we NEED to be self actualized?


The average person fulfills their potential for self actualization to
___% BUT ___ % of the population become fully self actualized

10 %
1 %

What is the Jonah Complex?

Jonah feared failure - people not listening to him, not living up to
gods expectations
As humans we fear our self actualization tendency- failure, just
like Jonah
We must risk to grow but when we dont risk it is because of fear of failure

The second side of the Hierarchy pyramid are what needs? What makes
up these needs?

Cognitive needs
the need to KNOW and the need to UNDERSTAND

Which cognitive need comes first?


How do we see cognitive needs?

whats that"

What are the 3rd side of the hierarchy pyramid? Does everyone have
these needs?

Aesthetic needs

If you have aesthetic needs what do you need?

to experience beauty - you see beauty in all kinds of things

What is the area of philosophy that is concerned with the meaning of
human existence?


Existentialism is concerned with what?

subjectivity or reality
focus on being in the world
perceptions are considered valid to study

What are the 3 popular paths to the pursuit of happiness?

material posessions
seeking pleasure in love and learning
immersion in spirituality/community

Characteristics of Happy people versus unhappy people

happy: less bothered by others success, dont compare themselves to
others, good relations, work and hobbies they enjoy
unhappy: dwell on negative, compare to others, ruminate on problems

PERMA model

P- positive emotion
E- Engagement
R- Relationships
M- Meaning
A- Accomplishment

Mischel believes what about the connection between traits and personality?

behaviors vary so much across situations that broad traits dont make sense
correlation only .30

When was Mischel born?


What is significant about life?

studied clinical psych
cognitive and learning approach
Bandura influence through work
Work on Delayed Gratification

Describe Mischels experiments with Delayed Gratification

Marshmallow study
biggest predictor of future success
kids who waited scored 200 points higher on SATs later in life, make
more money, better relationships

Ability to delay gratification is based on what?

modeling- teach by example
visibility of desired object - closer to eye makes harder
cognitive strategies- teach people to understand it and explain the
reinforcer (getting 2 if you wait)

Behavioral signatures

how you tend to behave in similar situations

Why is there consistency of personality?

even though personality interacts with the situation, we identify
with and place ourselves in situations that are consistent with how we are

Attricution theories

social psych concept
we attribute someones behavior to 2 things: Traits and Situational Factors

Internal Attributions

personality - inside the person

External Attributions

situational - outside the person

What is the significance of the power of the situation?

they vary in strength
the strength affects the individual
can override traits
certain situations encourage expression of certain traits - ex.
yelling at football games on tv

Can we classify situations?

No, they are too different and we respond different in different situation

What are mirror neurons?

brain cells that fire when doing a certain behavior and when watching
someone else do a certain behavior
this links our behavior to others and emotions

Explain how some people can differ in how sensitive they are to other
peoples emotions and behaviors?

Mirror neurons
Autistic people are less sensitive
People who cry when other people cry are more sensitive

Field dependent people

influenced by the situation and more reliant on others
behave consistent with social norms
external locus of control
low self efficacy

Field Independent People

influenced less by situation and less reliant on others
behavior NOT consistent with social norms
Non Conformist
internal locus of control

Does free will exist according to Mischel?

yes but limited