the emphasis of humanism is on what
overall dignity and worth of human beings
Humanists oppose the 1st force (psychoanalytic) theory by saying it
Humanists oppose the 2nd force (behaviorism) by saying it is what?
Humanism is the 3rd force and it says that humans are innately ______
When was Freud born?
When was Adler born?
When was Horney born?
When was Erikson born?
When was Skinner born?
When was Bandura born?
When was Rotter born?
When was Allport born?
When was Cattell born?
When was Eysenck born?
When was Rogers born?
When was Maslow born?
What are Carl Rogers "Claims to Fame"?
person centered therapy
he is the "other" humanist
first to tape therapy sessions
theory used in edu alot
What is significant about Roger's life?
he was the first theorist to be trained in clinical psychology
What are the 2 aspects of personality that are important to
humanists? Explain them.
organism- physical creature with physical and psychological functions
self- organized, consistent, whole composed of PERCEPTIONS of I or Me
(core of personality)
(subjective reality - self)
What is the single motivational force of the organism? (Rogers)
the self-actualizing tendency
this motivates us to survive and more forward
***NOT EASY - painful but we push ourself
According to Rogers, what is the organismic valuing process?
we evaluate experiences and options according to how well they serve
the self actualizing tendency
"are these experiences helping you grow?"
this is why we persevere despite pain and frustration
What is experiential field and what other theorist and idea is
similar to this?
it is who we encounter through life
similar to Eriksons radius of significant relations
What is our self concept according to Rogers? (3 things)
1. what we are
2. what we should be
3. what we'd like to be
1=2=3 > healthy
what is the real self?
how you are now and your perceptions of how you are
what is the ideal self?
how and what you would like to be
If there is congruence between the real and ideal self what does that
mean? What if there is discrepancy?
congruence: maturity and mental health
discrepancy: dissatisfaction and maladjustment (maladjustment is
more severe form of dissatisfaction)
when other people think of you in a positive way
all people need this
Unconditional positive regard
people value you as a person no matter what you do , no conditions
placed on my caring about you
"I love you even when you screw up
Conditional positive regard
I will think of you as being worthwhile as long as you meet certain conditions
ex. Nathan Scott in OTH with sports
can be grades, manners, etc
Conditions of Worth
internalization of other peoples conditional positive regard
comes from too much conditional positive regard
What are the characteristics of a fully functioning person?
1. Awareness/Acknowledgement/ Acceptance
2. Live fully and in the moment
3. Trust in the organism (yourself)
4. Freedom to make choices
What do the 3 A's of being a fully functioning person mean (Rogers)?
Awareness: recognize strengths and weaknesses
Acknowledgement: see that you may have flaws and know its okay
Acceptance: for yourself and others (who you are)
tape recording sessions
What is a Q Sort and how does it work?
uses statements about the self- person sorts based on how much the
statement is like them or is not
pre and post therapy
real and ideal self
early attempt at outcomes research- good for insurance companies
Maslows major contributions
founder of humanistic psychology
hierarchy of needs
What is significant about Maslow's life?
He had a hard childhood and didnt feel like he fit in except with his
uncle and cousins and then he married Bertha Goodman (1st cousin)
He was trained as a behaviorist - Watson and Harlow
influenced by birth of his daughter and the war
Hierarchy of Needs
lower needs are stronger
everyone starts at bottom
higher needs later in life and can be postponed or not exist at all
don't have to completely satisfy to move up
stronger needs need satisfied more
What makes up the first (bottom) level of the hierarchy?
Physiological Needs - food water air sleep proper temp and sex
Physiological needs are usually satisfied to what percentage? When
are they most important?
when 1st born cause someone else must satisfy them for you
What makes up the second level of the hierarchy?
Safety needs - feel safe secure and protected from harm
Safety needs are usually satisfied to what percentage? When are these
toddlers and adults with developmental disabilities
ex. Little Albert - kids scare easily
What makes up the 3rd level of the hierarchy?
Belongingness and Love needs - Affection (give and receive),
Affiliation ( belong to a group - important in childhood through
adulthood), Acceptance ( like unconditional positive regard)
To what percentage are Belongingness and Love needs usually satisfied?
What makes up the 4th level of the hierarchy?
Self Esteem: valuing yourself and healthy self concept
Other Esteem: other people respect you and having other people hold
you in high regard
To what percentage are Esteem needs usually fulfilled?
What are the 4 bottom levels of the hierarchy called?
if not filled adequately, then something is missing and needs filled
What is the top level of the hierarchy?
Self Actualization - fulfilling your true potential
be all that you can be
level where we are most unique - each individual has their own potential
some may look at these people as weird or crazy (Ghandi)
not being concerned with what other people think of you
The top level of the Hierarchy is called what compared to the D needs
at the bottom?
To what percentage do we fulfill self actualization?
What results if you reach the top of the hierarchy and the needs
metapathologies - more painful to come close and not reach the goal
than it is to not try at all
like coming in second
To what percent do we NEED to be self actualized?
The average person fulfills their potential for self actualization to
___% BUT ___ % of the population become fully self actualized
What is the Jonah Complex?
Jonah feared failure - people not listening to him, not living up to
As humans we fear our self actualization tendency- failure, just
We must risk to grow but when we dont risk it is because of fear of failure
The second side of the Hierarchy pyramid are what needs? What makes
up these needs?
the need to KNOW and the need to UNDERSTAND
Which cognitive need comes first?
How do we see cognitive needs?
What are the 3rd side of the hierarchy pyramid? Does everyone have
If you have aesthetic needs what do you need?
to experience beauty - you see beauty in all kinds of things
What is the area of philosophy that is concerned with the meaning of
Existentialism is concerned with what?
subjectivity or reality
focus on being in the world
perceptions are considered valid to study
What are the 3 popular paths to the pursuit of happiness?
seeking pleasure in love and learning
immersion in spirituality/community
Characteristics of Happy people versus unhappy people
happy: less bothered by others success, dont compare themselves to
others, good relations, work and hobbies they enjoy
unhappy: dwell on negative, compare to others, ruminate on problems
P- positive emotion
Mischel believes what about the connection between traits and personality?
behaviors vary so much across situations that broad traits dont make sense
correlation only .30
When was Mischel born?
What is significant about life?
studied clinical psych
cognitive and learning approach
Bandura influence through work
Work on Delayed Gratification
Describe Mischels experiments with Delayed Gratification
biggest predictor of future success
kids who waited scored 200 points higher on SATs later in life, make
more money, better relationships
Ability to delay gratification is based on what?
modeling- teach by example
visibility of desired object - closer to eye makes harder
cognitive strategies- teach people to understand it and explain the
reinforcer (getting 2 if you wait)
how you tend to behave in similar situations
Why is there consistency of personality?
even though personality interacts with the situation, we identify
with and place ourselves in situations that are consistent with how we are
social psych concept
we attribute someones behavior to 2 things: Traits and Situational Factors
personality - inside the person
situational - outside the person
What is the significance of the power of the situation?
they vary in strength
the strength affects the individual
can override traits
certain situations encourage expression of certain traits - ex.
yelling at football games on tv
Can we classify situations?
No, they are too different and we respond different in different situation
What are mirror neurons?
brain cells that fire when doing a certain behavior and when watching
someone else do a certain behavior
this links our behavior to others and emotions
Explain how some people can differ in how sensitive they are to other
peoples emotions and behaviors?
Autistic people are less sensitive
People who cry when other people cry are more sensitive
Field dependent people
influenced by the situation and more reliant on others
behave consistent with social norms
external locus of control
low self efficacy
Field Independent People
influenced less by situation and less reliant on others
behavior NOT consistent with social norms
internal locus of control
Does free will exist according to Mischel?
yes but limited