Ch. 21 Genitourinary MCB Flashcards

List the antimicrobial features of the urinary system

antimicrobial features of the urinary system:-two kidneys,
ureters, urinary bladder and urethra. infection is prevented by:
values that prevent backflow into kidneys, acidity of urine,
mechanical flushing of urine-the pH of urine does prevents the
growth of most bacteria-females have predisposition to infection
because of short urethra, proximity to anus possible contamination
defenses in the urine

What is the most common microbial threat to the urinary tract?

normal biota

What is the urinary system function?

removes waste products from the blood and helps maintain homeostasis

Which is not considered to be an innate defense of the urinary system?

secretory IgA

What does bacteria due in the vagina and with the pH?

ferment glycogen into acid, lowering the pH of the vagina to about 4.5

What does estrogen due in the vagina?

stimulates release of glycogen secretion by vaginal mucosa

List the defenses in the urine.


Describe the modes of transmission for urinary and reproductive
system infections.

Contaminated water, sexual intercourse, improper hygiene.

List the microorganisms that cause cystitis and predisposing factors

An inflammation of the urinary bladder
Infection is indicated by: 10,000 bacteria/ml or 100 coliforms/ml

frequent urges to urinate, even when the bladder is empty

dysuria: burning pain accompanying urination
urine can be cloudy due the presence of bacteria and white blood cells

hematuria: presence of blood in the urine causes it
to have an orange color
low-grade fever and nausea

Usual causative
agents: E. coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus

Why is E. coli the most common cause of cystitis, especially in females?

UTIs typically occur when bacteria outside the body enter the urinary
tract through the urethra and begin to multiply. Most
cases of cystitis are caused by a
type of E. coli bacteria. Bacterial
bladder infections may occur in women as a result of sexual intercourse.
E.coli is going to come out of our digestive tract, normal anatomy

Why is urethritis, an infection of the urethra,frequently preliminary
to further infections of the urinary tract?

Its the first portal of the entry

List the microorganism that cause pyelonephritis and predisposing factors.

An inflammation of one or both kidneys
Causative agent:
Usually E. coli

Symptoms: High fever;
back or flank pain
Diagnosis: 104
CFUs/ml and + LE test
Treatment: Cephalosporin

List the microorganism that cause leptospirosis and predisposing factors

Causative agent:
Leptospira interrogans

Reservoir: Dogs and rats

Skin/mucosal contact from urine-contaminated water

Contaminated: water,
mud, soil

Symptoms: Headaches,
muscular aches, fever, kidney failure a possible complication

Serological test

Treatment: Doxycycline

Vehicle�contaminated soilor water

List the causative agents, symptoms, methods of diagnosis, and
treatments for gonorrhea

Caused by:
Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Gram negative cocci
Attaches to oral or urogenital mucosa by fimbriae
� Symptoms:

�Men: Painful urination and discharge of pus�Women: Few
symptoms�are often mild and can be mistaken for a bladder or
vaginal infection�possible complications, such as PID�
Diagnosis: Gram stain, ELISA, PCR

� Treatment: Fluoroquinolones

If left untreated, may result in
Endocarditis, Meningitis, Arthritis
Ophthalmia neonatorum, eye infection, blindness

ophthalmia neonatorum

a type of neonatal infection contracted by newborns during delivery.
The baby's eyes are contaminated during passage through the birth
canal from a mother infected with either Neisseria
gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis.
also known as: Neonatal conjunctivitis

List the causative agents, symptoms, methods of diagnosis, and
treatments for nongonococcal urethritis (NGU)

Caused by: chlamydial infection, Symptoms: Discharge from the
vagina.Burning or pain when urinating.Abdominal pain or
abnormal vaginal bleeding may be an indication that the infection has
progressed to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

List the causative agents, symptoms, methods of diagnosis, and
treatments for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

Polymicrobic, usually-N. gonorrhoeae

-C. trachomatis
Salpingitis (infection of uterine tubes)
Symptoms: Chronic
abdominal pain
Doxycycline and cefoxitin

List the causative agents, symptoms, methods of diagnosis, and
treatments for syphilis

Caused by:
Treponema pallidum
Invades mucosa or through skin breaksone of the top five
most reported microbial diseases in the United States
Treatment: Benzathine
penicillinCongenital: Neurological damage

Primary stage:
Chancre at site of infection

Secondary stage: Skin
and mucosal rashes

Latent period: No symptoms

Tertiary stage:
Gummas on many organs

List the causative agents, symptoms, methods of diagnosis, and
treatments for Vaginitis

- inflammation of the vagina

Causative agent:

Candida albicans
� Grows on mucosa of mouth, intestinal tract, and
genitourinarytract� NGU in males
� Vulvovaginal candidiasis, yeasty discharge
� pH: <4

Symptoms: burning,
vaginal itching, discharge

microscopic and culture

Clotrimazole; fluconazole

List the causative agents, symptoms, methods of diagnosis, and
treatments for bacterial vaginosis.

Causative agent:
Gardnerella vaginalis

Symptoms: Copious
fishy, gray-white, thin, frothy discharge, NO inflammationpH: >4.5
Diagnosis: Clue cells
Treatment: Metronidazole

Why is the disease condition of the female reproductive system,
principally featuring growth of Gardnerella vaginalis, termed
vaginosis rather than vaginitis?

vaginosis: discharge

Discuss the epidemiology of candidiasis.

causative agent:
candida albicans (grows on mucosa of mouth, intestinal
tract, and genitourinary tract

Discuss the epidemiology of trichomoniasis.

Only infects human

Causative agent:
Trichomonas vaginalis transmission: Sexually
Transmitted found in semen or urine of male carriers
pH: 5-8
Men are usually asymptomatic but the urethra, prostate or seminal
vesicles serve as reservoirs of infection. Treatment: metronidazole
green frothy discharge Women: Vaginal discharge (greenish
yellow) and dysuria, irritation Men: Usually asymptomatic but
may have dysuria

List reproductive system diseases that can cause congenital and
neonatal infections, and explain how these infections can be prevented.

HIV: through nursingGenital Herpes: transmitted to fetus or
newborns Syphilis: Congenital, neurological damage
Gonorrhea: eye infection, blindnessChlamydia: eye
infection, pneumonia

What are the symptoms of the presence of Trichomonas
vaginalis in the male reproductive system?

green discharge