psych final review Flashcards

abraham maslow

humanistic movement
to fully understand peoples behaviors psychologist must take into
account the human drive toward personal growth.
argued human behavior is governed by an individuals self concept ;
humans are free
potential for personal growth
we are different from animals fundamentally

carl rogers

humanistic movement
to fully understand peoples behaviors psychologist must take into
account the human drive toward personal growth.
argued human behavior is governed by an individuals self concept ;
humans are free
potential for personal growth
we are different from animals fundamentally

B.F Skinner

no need to study internal mental events
stimulus to action no need to question thought process
skinner box
documented organisms repeat responses that lead to positive
behavior& do not repeat responses that lead to neutral negative responses
environmental behaviors mold behavior
free will is allusion
outside stimuli
environment controls behavior

John B. Watson

behaviorism- a theoretical orientation based on the premise that
scientific psychology should stay only observable behavior.
wanted psychologist to abandon the study of consciousness and focus
on behaviors.
redefined psych
1st pop psychologist
all about observation
nature v nurture
tongue cheek test

William James

led functionalist
american scholar
argued structuralist missed the real nature of conscious experiment
consciousness =continuous flow
created stream of consciousness
interested in how people adapt their behavior to the demands of the
real world around them
investigated: mental testing, patterns of development in children,
effects of educational practices, behavioral differences between sexes.

Wilhelm Wundt

created definition
the study of conscious experiment
make psych an independent discipline rather than a stepchild of
physiology and philosophy
psych modeled after 2 fields: chemistry and physics
established 1st formal laboratory for research in psych
university of Leipzig
christened 1879 as psychology date of birth
founder of psychology - due to 1st journal for psych

five schools of psychological thought



the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into basic
elements and investigate how these elements are related
looked at stiatic points of flow
gravitated towards the lab


psych should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness
rather than its structure

independent variable

event that an experimenter varies in order to its impact on another variable


variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation or the
independent variable

explain what makes psychology a science

according to wundt, psychology is consciousness the awareness of
experience. thus psychology became the scientific study of conclusive experience

role of dopamine

contributes to control of voluntary movement circuits characterized
as reward pathways

role of serotonin

involves in regulation of sleep, wakefulness, eating & aggression

role of norepinephrine

contributes to motivation or mood and arousal

role of acetylcholine

contributes to the regulation of attention, arousal, and memory

role of Gaba

serves as a widely distributed inhibilly transmitter contribution to
regulation of anxiety and sleep/arousal

brain region
frontal lobe

largest lobe
primary motor cortex
the movement of muscles

parietal lobe

primary cortex
registers sense of touch

occipital lobe

primary visual cortex
a nerve most visual signals are sent to & visual processing is begun


structure that coordinates the muscle movements & balance motor movements


respondible for regulating largely unconscious functions

temporal lobe

auditory processing

five sensory systems


visual system:

organ; eye
night stimulus

auditory system:

organ: ear
sound stimulus

gustation system:

organ: taste buds ; tongue
food and drink stimulus

olfactory system:

organ: nose
chemical stimulus

sensory system:

organ: skin


the stimulation of sense of organs


the section, organization and interpretation of sensory input


are specialized visual receptors that play a key role in day light
& color vision; provide better visual activity ( sharpness,
precise detail)


play a key role in night & peripheral vision ;10x more sensitive
to dim light than cones

outer ear

consist of the pinna -sound collecting cone, sound waves funneled
toward the ear drum

middle ear

vibrant of the eardrum are transmitted inward by a mechanical onair,
the ossicels, which serve to amplify any changes in air pressure

inner ear

consist largely of the cochlea
cochlea- a rived allea coiled tunnel that contains the receptors for hearing

eeg patterns

stage of conciousness


normal waking thought,alert , problem solving


deep relaxed sleep


light sleep


deep sleep

circadian rhythm

circadian rhythm - 24 hour biological cycles found in humanist other speeches.
influenced in the regulation of sleep
daily cycles also produce rhythmic variations in blood pressure,
urine, hormonal,secretions, & other physical functions


chronic problems in adequate sleep


sudden irresistible of sleep on sets during normal waking periods

sleep apnea

First described in 1965

sleep apnea is a breathing disorder characterized by
brief interruptions of breathing during sleep.
There are two types of sleep apnea: central and obstructive.


This is a sleep disorder characterized by walking or other activity
while seemingly still asleep.
The normal sleep cycle involves distinct stages from light
drowsiness to deep sleep.

physical dependence

exists when a person must convince to take a drug to avoid withdrawal symptoms

psychological dependence

when a person must continue to take a drug to satisfy intense mental
/emotional craving

classical conditioning

type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a
response that was originally evoked by another stimulus.

un conditional stimulus

evokes an unconditional response w/o previous conditioning

unconditioned response

an un learned reaction to all unconditioned stimulus that occurs w/o
previous conditioning


acquires the capacity to evoke a conditioned response

conditional response

a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus occurs because of
prevision condition

operant conditioning

a form of learnign wich voluntary response come to be controlled by
more consequences.

fixed ratio

the reinforces is given a fixed # of reinforced response

variable ratio

the reinforce is given after a variable # if non reinforced reactions

fixed interval

the reinforcer is given for the 1st response that occurs after a
fixed time
the interval has elapsed

variable interval

the reinforcer is given for the 1st response after a variable time
intervals have elapsed

positive punishment

add unpleasant action
ex: spanking

negative punishment

taking away desired thing
ex: toy

positive reinforcement

take away something good

negative reinforcement

take away something bad

3 basic processes of memory



forming a memory code


maintaining encoded info in memory overtime


retrieving info from memory stores

3 types of problems proposed by greeno

inducing structure

problem of transformation

the person must carry out a sequence of transformation in order to
reach a specific goal

problem of arrangement

the person must arrange the parts in a way that satisfies some criteria

problem of inducing structure

person must discover relations among 2 parts of the problem


basing probability of an event on the case with which relevant
instance comes to mind


basing the probability of an event on how similar it is to typical prototype

gamblers fallacy

person thinks probability of an outcome has changes when really it
stayed the same
is the belief that the chances of something happening with a fixed
probability become higher or lower as the process is repeated
. People who commit the gambler's fallacy believe
that past events affect the probability of something happening in the future

conjunction fallacy

odds of 2 uncertain events happening together are greater than an
event happening alone


the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure


measurement of consistency of test; computing a correlation


a numerical index of the degree of relationship between 2 variables

heritability ratio

an estimate of the proportion of how variability in a population that
is determined by variations in genetic inheritance
some theorist believe that anywhere between 40%-80%of intelligence
comes from genetics
can use it to study intelligence differences in closer& disarray
twins id/fraternal


a hypothetical, internal state of tension that motivates an organism
to engage in activities that should relieve this tension


an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior


the motives of humans are products of evolution

3 components of emotion


cognitive emotion

what you are thinking about the situation

behaviroal emotion

how you are reacting to the emotion

physiological emotion

how body is feeling accompanying the emotion

sequence of stages of prenatal development


germinal stage

1st stage
1st two week s
formation of placenta

embryonic stage

2nd stage
2 weeks to 2 month
formationof vital organs & systems

fetal stage

3rd stage
body growth
movement capability begins
brain cells multiply
age of viability is 6 months
can be born at that time

forms of attachment


infant attachment

deep emotional connection
infant forms with his or her primary caregiver

secure attachment

distress when mom leaves
happy when she returns


distressed when she leaves
angry when returned


shows no distress when mother leaves
shows no interest when she returns

paigets theory of cognitive development

he asserted that interaction with the environment and maturation
gradually alter the way children think
children's thoughts process go through a series of major stages

paigets stages of thought process

1) sensory motor ( birth -2 years)
2) preoperational (2-7 years)
3) concrete operational (7-11 years)
4) formal operational ( 11 -adulthood)

ericksons theory personality development

eight stages of self development

trust vs. mistrust

Is the world a safe place or is it full of unpredictable events and
accidents waiting to happen?
Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of hope.

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

18 months and three,
The child is discovering that he or she has many skills and
abilities, such as putting on clothes and shoes, playing with toys,
etc. Such skills illustrate the child's growing sense of independence
and autonomy.
Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of will.

Initiative vs. Guilt

three and continuing to age five
It is at this stage that the child will begin to ask many questions
as his thirst for knowledge grows
. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of purpose.

Industry (competence) vs. Inferiority

If the child cannot develop the specific skill they feel society is
demanding (e.g. being athletic) then they may develop a sense of inferiority.
If children are encouraged and reinforced for their initiative, they
begin to feel industrious and feel confident in their ability to
achieve goals.
success leads to competence

Identity vs. Role Confusion

During this stage adolescents search for a sense of self and
personal identity, through an intense exploration of personal values,
beliefs and goals.

Intimacy vs. Isolation

We explore relationships leading toward longer term commitments with
someone other than a family member.

. Generativity vs. Stagnation

we establish our careers, settle down within a relationship, begin
our own families and develop a sense of being a part of the bigger picture.

Ego Integrity vs. Despair

65 years +
It is during this time that we contemplate our accomplishments and
are able to develop integrity if we see ourselves as leading a successful

kohlbergs theory of moral development

made us understand that morality starts from the early childhood
years and can be affected by several factors.

level 1: Preconventional Morality

the first level of morality, preconventional morality, can be further
divided into two stages: obedience and punishment, and individualism
and exchange.

Stage 1: Punishment- Obedience Orientation

Related to Skinner�s Operational Conditioning, this stage includes
the use of punishment so that the person refrains from doing the
action and continues to obey the rules. For example, we follow the law
because we do not want to go to jail

Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist Orientation

in this stage, the person is said to judge the morality of an action
based on how it satisfies the individual needs of the doer. For
instance, a person steals money from another person because he needs
that money to buy food for his hungry children. In Kohlberg�s theory,
the children tend to say that this action is morally right because of
the serious need of the doer.

level 2: Conventional Morality

the second level of morality involves the stages 3 and 4 of moral
development. Conventional morality includes the society and societal
roles in judging the morality of an action.

Stage 3: Good Boy-Nice Girl Orientation

person judges an action based on the societal roles and social
expectations before him. This is also known as the �interpersonal
relationships� phase. For example, a child gives away her lunch to a
street peasant because she thinks doing so means being nice.

stage 4: Law and Order Orientation

respecting the authorities and following the rules, as well as doing
a person�s duty. The society is the main consideration of a person at
this stage. For instance, a policeman refuses the money offered to him
under the table and arrests the offender because he believes this is
his duty as an officer of peace and order.

level 3: Postconventional Morality

The post-conventional morality includes stage 5 and stage 6. This is
mainly concerned with the universal principles that relation to the
action done

Stage 5 : Social Contract Orientation

In this stage, the person is look at various opinions and values of
different people before coming up with the decision on the morality of
the action.

Stage 6 : Universal Ethical Principles Orientation

this orientation is when a person considers universally accepted
ethical principles. The judgment may become innate and may even
violate the laws and rules as the person becomes attached to his own
principles of justice.