Muisc App Test V Flashcards

In music, what do the terms modernism and modernist refer to?

a variety of twentieth-century approaches�including both avant-garde,
radical experimentation and more modest kinds of experimentation�that
share a special self-consciousness

__________ was originally a military term but has long been embraced
by radical artists and intellectuals to denote the forefront of their activity.

Avant garde

The first phase of avant-garde modernism peaked during what time?

1890�1920, the years leading up to and immediately after World War I

What developments led people of the late nineteenth and early
twentieth centuries to question their most basic assumptions about life?

new technologies and new theories, such as Einstein�s theory of
relativity, Darwin�s theory of evolution, and Freud�s psychological theories

Modernism�s response to the anxieties and uncertainties of the late
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was to

question all the rules and assumptions surrounding the arts.

Which was a new and radical development in the visual arts in the
early twentieth century

abstract (nonrepresentational) painting

Which modernist movement in poetry wanted words to perform their
signifying functions freely, without being limited to exact
definitions or having to fit into phrases and sentences?


Which modernist movement in painting attempted to capture the actual,
perceived quality of light using patches of color?


Which modernist movement in the arts sought to express the most
extreme human feelings in abstract ways?


The symbolists were fascinated with the music dramas of Richard
Wagner because of his use of


Inspired by the expressionists and fauves, composers courted ________
in their music�such as Stravinsky, who in his ballet The Rite of
Spring, depicted human sacrifice in the fertility ceremonies of
primitive Slavic tribes.


The first phase of avant-garde modernist composers, in the period
before World War I, focused on experimentation with which aspect(s) of music?

melody, harmony, and tonality

The six-note scale that divides an octave into six equal parts is
called the

whole-tone scale.

Music that lacks any feeling of having a central or homing pitch is called


Which composer famously spoke of �The Emancipation of Dissonance,�
meaning freedom from the need to resolve to a consonant chord?

Arnold Schoenberg

Two European centers of art, which were also centers of avant-garde
music, were

Paris and Vienna.

Which of the following elements of music did Debussy heighten to a
new level of importance?

Tone color (orchestration)

In Clouds, Debussy makes frequent use of two new scales, the

pentatonic and octatonic scales.

Debussy�s Three Nocturnes refer to

paintings by the artist James McNeill Whistler.

After World War I, Stravinsky began to model his music on
pre-Romantic composers such as Bach and Mozart in a style sometimes called


The first performance of The Rite of Spring

caused a riot in the audience.

Which are emotional themes associated with expressionist music?

extreme states such as hysteria, nightmares, and insanity

The twelve-tone system�Schoenberg�s �method of composing with the 12
tones solely in relation to one another��became known as


The soprano in Pierrot lunaire performs in a style that is
in between song and speech, an invention of Schoenberg's called


Instead of making his living as a composer, Ives had a job

in business.

Why is Charles Ives's emergence as a major modernist composer surprising?

America did not have a rich tradition of classical music at the time,
and Ives worked in isolation.

Though he disapproved of the label, he is considered the leading
Impressionist composer; his music is noted for its sensory content,
fragmentary themes/ motives, and use of non-traditional scales.

Claude Debussy

His three ballets written for the Ballets Russes in Paris established
his international fame and display his progressively abstract use of
folk tunes and rejection of Romantic emotionality.

Igor Stravinsky

Considered the leading expressionist composer, his name came to
personify innovations in atonality; he and his pupils Webern and Berg
are often referred to as the Second Viennese School

Arnold Schoenberg

Regarded as a true �American original,� he was among the first
composers to experiment with musical techniques such as polytonality,
polyrhythm, chance elements, and quarter tones, foreshadowing many
musical innovations of the 20th century.

Charles Ives

He was the first important African American composer in the concert
music tradition and the first American born composer (of any race) to
have an opera produced by a major opera company.

William Grant Stil

Using American music of all kinds (jazz, cowboy songs, hymns, square
dances, folk tunes), he forged a distinctly American style of
composition; he believed that �art should serve the people.�

Aaron Copland

Widely recognized as the greatest composer of film music in history,
he currently holds the record for the most Oscar nominations for a
living person.

John Williams

Considered the premier concert music composer in America today, he
states, �I am not a modernist. � I embrace the whole musical past. � I
rely � on my intuitive sense of balance.�

John Adams

In the second phase of experimental modernism after World War II,
composers tended to

do all of these.

Minimalism in music (and art) refers to

anything that is spare or stripped to its essentials.

The current approach to concert music in which composers pick and
choose from the whole of music history before them is termed


The Bay Psalm Book

A & B above

Which nineteenth-century composer wrote popular songs such as
�Beautiful Dreamer,� �Oh, Susanna!,� and �Camptown Races�?

Stephen Collins Foster

A religious folk song that develops outside an established church is
known as a


What is the name for the style of piano playing developed by black
musicians that involves the left hand playing strictly on the beat
while the right hand syncopates the rhythm?


Which of the following is not a feature of jazz?

bel canto singing

Which is the typical structure of a blues melody stanza?

a a b (3 x 4-measure phrases = 12 measures)

Because of the high quality of playing by Louis Armstrong and his
colleagues, what became a regular feature in early jazz?

solo sections

As New Orleans jazz bands expanded in size to become �big bands,� one
effect on the music was

limited improvisation.

Which is not an element of the bebop style developed in the
small clubs of Harlem?

simple harmonies

1. Spirituals, work songs, and �field hollers�
2. Blues
3. New Orleans jazz
4.Big band jazz (swing)


______ were so called to distinguish them from their European
counterparts, operettas.


Rock�n�roll grew out of a blending of

country music with rhythm and blues.

Elvis Presley, Little Richard, Bill Haley and His Comets

Early rock�n�roll

The Supremes, Aretha Franklin, Sly and the Family Stone

Motown, soul, and funk

The Beatles, the Rolling Stones

The British Invasion

Bob Dylan, the Grateful Dead, Jimi Hendrix

American Counteroffensives: folk rock, acid rock

Patti Smith Group, Nirvana, Public Enemy

Punk, rap, and post-rock