Sociology 2000 Final Flashcards

Sociological Imagination

Thinking how personal problems are actually social issues

Social Context

How where you live helps shape the person that you are


Groups of people that share similar set of economic interest

Social Forces

Things that influence the way individuals act in society - have to
conform to be considered normal


The way we learn to behave in society and all the different
situations we encounter.
Starts when our parents teach us from right and wrong
To figuring out how to interact with others, take a
test, and write a paper

Social Construction

Societies create gender categories not nature or biology
Which then gets translated as inequalities between men
and women
EX: gender and femininity


One person suffering from two stereotypes


Statistical / numerical


Description / textual


Two things co-vary
One causes another
EX: income and education - those who are richer are
more educated

Trends and Probabilities

The probability of interrupting a trend does not make it in inconsistent
EX: Dr. Shor

Social Interaction

Our behavior differ depending on the presence of others
EX: The way you talk to your mother is not the same way as
you talk to a friend

Social Structure

Picking it up to learn the norms
EX: Thomas learning from his friend how to behave at a
formal dinner

Roles and Social Hierarchies

People who are "elevated" above others

How does social structure create roles and norms?

Reinforces roles and norms
Socialization teaches and trains us how to behave in society


Meanings, symbols, values, beliefs, practices

Culture as a tool kit

Set of ideas and skills from culture and applying it to your own life

Culture as communication

Symbols, practices, languages


How you evaluate cultures based on yours [unwilling to understand]

Cultural Relativism

Although you have your own culture, you're willing to understand others

Cultural Capital

How others judge your wealth on a higher or lower status

Laws and Regulations relating to gaining and maintaining power

Having power over people [others listen]

Proportional Representation

Everyone gets represented equally

Winner takes all system

One winner takes it all

How does social capital [power] play a role in market?

Resources available to people through relationships and networks
EX: friends and family, social media

How does culture [cultural capital] play a role in market?

Knows the formal and informal rules and norms
Knowledgeable and skillfulness in bargaining


Unequal distributions of goods and opportunities in society
EX: lower class

Social Stratification

Inequalities among individuals and groups; the division of
society into groups in a social hierarchy

Socio-economic Status [SES] and education

Income, education, occupation
EX: the better occupation, the better wealth, the better education

Progressive Tax System

The system that believes the rich pays more tax than the lower income

American System of Tax Brackets

Everyone pays the same tax amount up until a certain amount of dollars

Inequality of Opportunity

How it shapes the opportunities for children and young adults to
maximize their potential
EX: Connor at valet

Socio-economic [social] mobility

People moving from one place to another for better jobs

Intergenerational scoio-economic mobility

The higher the correlation between parents and children's earnings,
means less scoio-economic mobility
[the similar income difference, the less chances of the
children being the opposite from the parents]
EX: rich = rich, middle class = middle class


Someone's physical characteristics
EX: skin color


Someone's cultural, national origin, geographic ancestry
EX: immigrants

Social construction and its variability to race

Race was invented and is subject change over time


Form of social closure

Prejudice [forms]

Negative beliefs or atitude towards entire gorup
EX: stereotypes

Discrimination [classification]

Behaviors that harms or puts others at a disadvantage
EX: riots, tracking

Individual Discrimination

individual or small group that harms one or more individuals
based on their group membership "
EX: an employer refusing to hire blacks, a landlord who
doesn�t rent to Mexicans

Institutional Discrimination

Organizations having policies on excluding members from a particular group


Often negative generalization about other groups


Female / male
EX: biological, anatomical [penis and vagina], DNA
hormones level


People who are born with both female and male anatomical


How society shape differences between men and women
Women / man or Feminine / masculine
EX: behavior

Gender Identity

Person own sense of gender

Gender Expression

How one acts

Social Construction of gender

System that creates gender differences and inequalities

Gender Norms

How things are taught becoming norms
EX: our parents consistently telling us to not run but
walk outside

Gender Socialization

Members of society are taught its norms and practices
EX: parents, peers, media

Occupational Sex Segregation

Segregation of gender in jobs

Sexual Orientation

Whether one is attracted to opposite, same, or both sex


When culture and institutions send the message that it is normal for
everyone to be heterosexual
EX: a commercial having a female advertise would have her
lift something lightly compared to a male who would lift something
more aggressively

Fictive Kin

People who we feel as if they are our family members

Egalitarian Relationship

When all family members have equal chores or child/elder care

Relationship between family structure and economic and cultural forces

- divorce
- same-sex marriage
- finances
- changing work patterns

Conjugal Family

Extend family "[a family consisting of a relatively autonomous
married couple and their children are able to seek its fortune outside
the parental household]

Care Work

Paid or unpaid labor outside of work - in a household
EX: maid

Second Shift

Typically a mother's housework after coming home from her paid
[first] job/shift


Set of ideas apart of a goal, expectations, or actions
EX: religion

Religious Segregation

Class, lifestyle, and preferences
EX: churches - depends where you live and your social
status [economically and ethnically]

Demographic variables thar vary the most with religiosity

Gender - women are more religious because of both of ad
in-spite of gendered aspects of religion
Age - older people tend to be more religious because of
�cohort� differences NOT bc of age

Religious Conflict

Reasoning: scarce resources
Issue: Not enough land, water

Hidden Curriculum

Unstated standards or beliefs in an educational system
EX: most teachers wants students to raise their hands before
they're called on

Human Capital Theory

Believes that education increase economy AND the social skills to
adapt to workforce

Allocation Theory

Moves you into different routes based on your degree

Soft Skill

Knowing how to act, dress, and present at setting and able to work
well with others
EX: private school students have more interaction with adults
making them more soft skilled than public school students

Social Reproduction * and role of SES in education


Shadow Education System

Education promoting class reproduction
EX: paid private tutoring: SAT, LSAT, GRE

Achievement Gap

Gap in education achieved between 2 groups
EX: man and women, blacks and whites, upper and lower class


How schools assign students to specific group bhased upon ability

Socially Tracking

Shapes student self-esteem and expectations
EX: ranking students = some are better than others

Institutionally Tracking *

Parents and teachers believe their student has certain qualities
above the actual skill the possess

Why does tracking continue?

Many teachers feel unprepared to effectively manage a classroom with
a range of student abilities
Higher class parents feel as if it gives their children benefits

Health Disparities

Your health depends on your SES, race and ethnicity, gender, and location

Socioeconomic Gradient in health

The more income, the better health
Low status = less healthy than middle and middle = less healthy
than high

Fundamental Social Cause

Higher class people have access to knowledge, money, and connections
making it easier for them to avoid disease and death

Fundamental Social Cause Theory

No matter what the causes bad health, socioeconomic gradients will emerge

Roles of sanitation and hygiene changes

Diseases like small pox went away due to better PUBLIC HEALTH - basic
sanitary policies
EX: street cleaning, garbage removal, and clean water supplies

Affordable Care Act

Gave the government a role in practice of medicine for the first time


Extended insurance coverage to all, preventing discrimination against
patients with pre-existing conditions
EX: ongoing treatment

Information Asymmetry *

EX: patients usually have no way of learning in advance how much
procedures cost or which doctor offers the best service at a
reasonable cost

Fee for service

Doctors are paid for every visit, procedure, or test they perform

American doctors vs. European's

Euro. doctors are paid by the number of patients on their list
American doctors think it is a business to do unnecessary
procedures in order to get more insurance money

Deviance *


Social Deviance

Behavior violating unwritten rules of society

Statistical Deviance

Behavior that is unusual but does not violate any social norms
EX: 1989: French govn�t banned hijab worn by muslim women in public
schools; 2011: French govn�t banned full face covering / niqab in
public places
[These laws transfer what might be statistical deviance into social deviance]

Descriptive Norms [statistical]

What is statistically most common to do in a situation
Relates to statistical deviance

Injunction Norms

What a society would normally approve or disapprove
Relates to social deviance


Basic rule of society that helps us know what is not appropriate to
do in a situation


To declare that the action is appropriate