Exercise Physiology final exam Flashcards

Different types of muscle

Smooth muscle
Cardiac muscle
Smooth muscle

Skeletal Muscle Architecture Hierarchy

entire muscle- fasiculi- muscle fiber- myrofibrils- sarcomere-
actin/myosin complex

Define: transverse tubules

subway transports the electrical movement (action potential) to the
SR. Carries AP to deep muscle fiber

Define: sarcoplasmic reticulum

release Ca2+ which then reacts with the actin and mysoin to contract
the muscle

Define: Mitochondria

Powehouse" pf the cell. used to breakdown nutrients to
produce energy for various types of contraction, fuel source

What is needed to make an actin-myosin crossbridge

1) calicium
2) ATP

Three types of muscle fibers

type one: slow twitch- small neurons, high resistance to
fatigue, aerobic, low force production, many capilaries, slow relay,
red type two a: fast twitch- fast, large neuron, intermediate
resistance to fatigue, ATP_Pcr and glycongen, many capilaries, and
pink type two b: very fast twitch- very fast, large neurons,
low resistance to fatigue, ATP_Pcr, few capilaries, white

Three types of muscle contractions

concentric: shortening isometic: no movment
escentric: lengthens

Different shapes of the muscle

-pennate: produced the most force
-overal: contractions
(structure dictates function)

define: muscle fatigue

the reduction in maximal force-generating capacity of a muscle
decrease in muscle performance with continued effort,
accompanied by sensation of tireness inability to maintain
required power output to continue muscle work at any given

Two common sites of Muscular Fatigue

1) central (pyscological, integration, and chemical messenger)
2) peripheral (metabolic depletion)

What are common hypothese for muscle fatigue in the central nervous system

1) thermoregulation: brain gets too hot
2) central governor: if Q limits performance than muscle
activation must be decreased to protect blood flow in the CNS

What are common hypothese for muscle fatigue in the peripheral
nervous system

1) subtrate depletion
ATP PCR glycogen
H+ Pi

What is ATP

Adenosine triphosphate
smallest unit of energy our bodies break down
food molecules and breaks it down to ATP

What is an enzyme

biological catalyst accelerates the rate of a chemical
reaction depended on Ph temperature
aviability of substrate

Four pathways for making ATP

Immediate ATP-PCR (oxygen independent)
intermediate oxygen independent glycolysis
Long term oxygen dependent glycolysis
normal daily activity glycosis plus kreb cycle and
ETC glyconeogensis protein
typically used during starvation catabolism of

You need _______ state measurements and varying level of _________
measurements for O2 consumption and calories burned

resting; exercise

Two things energy expenditure at rest

1) BMR (basil metabolic rate): maintain vital function
2) RMR (resting metabolic rate): maintain vital function plus digestion

Factors effecting BMR/RMR

physical activity (most important) Diet-induced
thermogensis (DIT) Climate hormones

Metabolism ______ in dirrection proportion to the ________ in
exercise intensity


During exercise at constant power output vo2max increases from its
resting values to stready value with ____-___ min

1-2 min

There is a _____ increase in the vo2 with increase in power output
(some exceptions)


Three things that VO2 and RMR can tell us

Vo2(l/min)=[FiO2*Vi]-[FeO2*Ve] three gasses make up
insire air nitrogen oxygen Co2
The Haldane transformation allows us to calulate Vi
from Ve because nitrogen is constant

What is VO2max

Maximal rate at whihc an individual can diliever and use 02 during
strenous physical activity. Single best measurement of CVS endurance
and aerobic fitness.
Increases with physical activity decreases after
age of 25-30 by 1% a year

Vo2max: ________: gas analysis by treadmill or bicycle


VO2max: _____: estimate or prediction using an equation


Units for absolute Vo2max


Units for relative Vo2max


What is ECOP

Exercise Post O2 consumption ECOP never equal O2
consumption ECOP greater than o2 deficit O2
consumption greater than O2 demand EPOC
replinishes ATP/PCR stores, converts hemo/myoglobin
clears co2

define: cardiac output

rate at which blood in pumped out of the hear

Equation for Q (or CO)


Define: stroke volume

the amount of blood your heart push out of the heart

equation of stroke volume

EDV (End diastolic volume: amount of blood in your heart when it
relaxes)- ESV (end systolic volume: amount of blood after heart contracts)

What is ejection fraction (EF)

% of EDV pumped
(effectiveness of heart)

What is pre-load

volume of blood in ventricle at end of diastole (EDP)

what is after-load

resistance left ventricle must overcome to circulate blood (TPR
determinants of after-load)

Two mechanisms that help blood flow

vasodilation: dilation, increase diameter
vasoconstriction: constriction, decrease in diameter

After the start of exercise _________ occurs to muscles in use and
______ to muscle not in use

vasodilation; vasoconstriction

What is pulmonary ventilation

the process of air moving in and out of lings

Do the lungs have large surface area


hierarchy of lungs

trachea- bronchi- bronchioles- alveolis

Two zones of lungs

conducting trachae bronchioles
respiratory respiratory broncholies
alveolar ducks alveoli

What happens during inspiration

diaphragm contracts chest cavity enlarges and lungs
expand intrpulmonic pressure decreases air is sucked

What happens during expiration

rest/light exercise
streched lung tissue recoils inspiratory muscle
relaxes air mmoves to atomsphere
same intercostal and abs are used

How both chemical and non-chemical mechanism fit together (three
steps of how respiratoration happens during exercise)

starts to exercise mmv increases to steady state
tightly regulated steady state

Two steps in recovery of exercise in respiratory system

an abrupt decline in ventilation reflects removal of central
command and input from recpetors in active muscles slow
recovery phase form gradual metabolic, chemical and thermal

What is POAH, what does it do for tempature

Preoptic-anterior hypothalmus BODY'S thermostate
SNS receptors

SNS __________ (VS) minimizes heat loss, SNS ____________ (VD)
enhances heat loss


what does the endocrine gland efforts, do for tempature

increase metabolism, which in turn increases heat
production cooling: releasing of thyroxine (stimulates of
heat production

What does eccrine sweat gland, do for tempature

SNS stimuluation of SNS, which in return E heat loss
acetylcholine more responsive to change in core temp than
skin temp

What does skeltal muscle effectors do for tempature

help generate add heat via shievering involuntary
cycles of constriction and relaxation of muscles only heat
production no useful work

What happens in heat acclimatization (physiological factors)

(heat during exercise)= better performance in hot
conditions CVS optizes sweat rate, distibution, and
content changes lower core tempature plasma volume
increases decrease in heart rate increase cardiac
output lead to dangerous Na+ loss

what are acute responses to altitude

pulmonary ventilation increases immediately
(hyperventilation) respiratory alkalosis=high blood
pressure kidneys excrete more bicarbonate decrease
alveolar PO2 leads to decrease o2 hemoglobin saturation gas
exchange at muscles decrease cardiac output increases
(after few days muscles exert more o2 BMR
increases more reliance on glucose than fat increase
in anarobic metabolism which leads to increase LAdecrease in
VO2max as altiude increases

what is the relationship between body composition and preformance

less fat usually= better preformance (except- sumo
wesslers, swimmers, weight lifters) guide
should be give per sport

what is fat free mass

this includes muscle
increases good for power, strength, and muscle
endurance but bad for aerobic endurance

What is fat

dead weight bbut useful source of energy

Explain children and endurance exercise as regard to VO2max heart
size and lung size

resting and submaximal blood pressure lower smaller
hearts lower SV higher HR slighly lower
Q (A-V)O2 difference will increase to furture compensate
lower glycolytic capacity relys more on fat
poor enconomy limited anarobic preformance

What will increase with age for children and exercise

lung function peak flow rate metabolic
function endurance running growth hormone
insuline like growth factors

explain what happens to vo2max with aging

reduce maximal HR sedenditary habits increase risk for
vascular age exercise leads to decrease in risk
decrease 1% per year (if active male slower deccline) %
decline in Vo2max related to the intensity of training

what will decrease with age

maximal SSV Vo2max peripheral blood flow
lung and chest wall elastic

CVS decrements factors of VO2max in aging?

genetics general activity intensity
levle volume of training age relate body comp
age rangexae

explain the exercise science area where women outperform men

women outperform men during ultra-endurance event
equal at marathons men are quicker at 10km

Why can women outpreform men in ultra-distances

women can sustain higher VO2maxes longer flexibity of
muscles estergon women to burn more fat and spare
glycogen, allowing for better preformance