Mycology Flashcards

Fungi (include yeasts & molds)

*benefits* saprobes (decompers), mycorrhizae (help plants absorb
water and minerals, Mushrooms, penicillin (drugs)Characteristics,
chemoheterotrophs, acquire food by absorption, reproduce with spore,
cell made of chitin,


round/oval, unicellular organisms, compact/dense like bacterial
colonies, divide by budding and fission, yeast live on us at all times


filamentous hyphae/hypha or fuzzy appearance, mycelium visible of
hyphae/colony ( can be seen with the naked eye), can be septate or
non-septate, septate have septum and pores, can be sexual or a sexual,
reproduce faster, makes humans sick faster

7 characteristics of colony morphology

Asexual spores (involves spores) is useful to identify...condiospores
develop at the end of a stalk, blastospores develop by budding,
sporangiospores develop within a sac, arthrospores develop by
fragmentation of hyphae,Sexual spores...zygospores, ascospores, basidiospores

Nutritional Adaptations

grow in environments hostile to bacteria, prefer pH of 5, mostly
aerobic, resistant to high osmotic pressure, resistant to low moisture
environments e.g., bathroom walls, show leather, newspapers, behind ears

Economic effects of Fungi

Aspergillus niger, produced citric acid in food, Saccharomyces
cerevisae, to produce wine and bread, Taxomyces, produce a component
of the anti cancer drug taxol


Kingdom include plant-like protists, fungus-like protists,
animal-like protists...protozoa are animal-like protists, Unicellular,
exist in two stages Trophozoite (a vegetative stage, a feeding stage
or growing stage, metabolically active) and Cyst (dormant of resting,
resistant stage involved stage transmission from host to host) ,
reproduce asexually by fission, budding or multiple fission

Protozoa means of locomotion

Amoebas move with pseudopodia, ciliates move with cilia, flagellates
move wia flagella, Apicomplexans (sporozoans), immobile no motility in
the adult state *all have human pathogens*

Protozoan diseases

*Balantidium coli, move by cilia, only human parasite causes
balantidiasis a diarrheal disease, transmitted by fecal oral route,
diagnoses by observations of cysts/trophs in feces
*Giardia lamlia/intestinalis causes giardiasis a ( diarrheal
disease), &Trichomonas vaginalis (sexually transmitted disease)
causes trichomoniasis parasite forms trophozoite, move by flagella and
lack mitochondria, diagnosis by observations of trophs in genital smear

Protozoan diseases

* trypanosome brucei, African sleeping sickness infects bloodstream
and CNS causes lethargy, transmitted by tsetse fly (vector)
photoautotrophs, move by flagella, diagnosis by trypomastigotes in
blood or other body fluid
**Plasmodium species, not motile complex life cycle, an apicomplexan
sporozoan, causes malaria infects liver and red blood cells ,
parasistes forms trophozoites , tramission is by mosquito bite
(vector) and is diagnoses by ring forms in blood of trophozoites


multicellular, eukaryotic, have head and tail ends, have bilateral
symmetry, have complex reproductive system,

Helminths classification

Flatworms (phylum Platyhelminthes) have - flukes are trematodes and
tapeworms are cestodes
Roundworms are phylum nematodes

Helminths diseases

Clonorchis sinensis, Chinese liver fluke a flatworm, causes
clonorchiasis liver disease, adult worms live in the blie ducts,
transmitted by eating undercooked fish, observed in feces

Helminths diseases

Taenia saginata beef tapeworm causes taeniasis a GI disease (nausea,
diarrhea) are flatworms, have head called Scolex with hook and suckers
and Proglottids develop behind the head and mature as they move
bacteria behind the head and mature and release eggs at the tail, is
transmitted by undercooked beef containg cysts and diagnoses by eggs
in feces

Helminths diseases

Ascaris lumbricoides is a roundworm, most common worm infection,
affects I billion pple worldwide, causes ascariasis and infects lungs
and intestine, transmitted by fecal oral route by ingesting eggs in
food or soil, diagnosed by observing eggs in feces

Helminths diseases

Enterobius vermicularis a pinworm (roundworm) causes pinworm
infection a GI infection that's asymptomatic or very itchy,
transmission is by ingestion or inhalation of eggs and is diagnosed by
cellophane tape test for perianal eggs

Helminths diseases

Nector americanus a hookworm (roundworm) causes hookworm infection
infects GI tract, is transmitted by juvenile worms that penetrate skin
and is eggs are observed in feces

Helminths diseases

Cercarial dermatitis (swimmers itch) is a schistosoma species (flukes
/flatworms) cercaria is a larval state of the parasite, transmitted
while swimming in water where parasites are located, definitive host
is ducts, intermediate host is snails and accidental host is humans.
have patchy red pin point rash that itches, develops with 48 hrs, does
no further than skin, is diagnosed by presentation and history, no
treatment, no anti parasitic drugs, OTC anit itch medication, towel
off after swimming, control snail and treat ducks