Physiology Final Flashcards

The more active of the thyroid hormone is ________ which is created
in ________ location(s).

T3 (triiodothyronine) ; two distinct

The receptors of the ______ pituitary gland bind endocrines that
travel through the ________.

Anterior ; Infundibulum

The listed change in which of these compounds could result in
overstimulation of the follicular cells?

Increase of the thyrotropin releasing hormone

On the later portion of his intergalactic trip, allen started
experiencing some atypical symptoms. he was unable to rewarm himself
after his morning space walks and could not make it to the dinner
buffet without an afternoon nap. after consulting with the ships
doctors, allen correctly realized that....

His best course of treatment would be to take a synthetic amine endocrine.

Individuals who live continually stressful lives will be expected to...

have decreased interest in reproduction
have elevated blood glucose levels

The endocrine _________ leads to the release of a compound that
_______ do negative feedback

Gonadotropin-relseasing hormone (GnRH) ; does

Steroid endocrines are ______ and ________ requires a plasma bending
protein to enter the effectors cytosol

lipophilic ; do not

In avalon latest experiment, she is able to determine a method to
sever the axons of all neurons existing the hypothalamus. the patients
receiving this treatment will be expecting to have decreased levels of
circulating ________

Oxytocin or Vasopressin

Which pair of endocrines correctly lists the endocrine 1 first and
endocrine 2 second?

prolactin- releasing factor (PrRF) to Prolactin (Prl)

the endocrine ______ normally causes ________

dopamine ; decreases milk production
cortisol ; decreased immune response

Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) is to increasing thyroid
stimulating hormone (TSH) as....

Dopamine (Da) is to decreasing Prolactin (Prl)

Which is a correct pairing of an endocrine produced in the
hypothalamus and its associated gland?

Growth hormone releasing hormone (GhRH) ; Liver

Bobby and Usman are taking a quick break to grab lunch while studying
intently for a very difficult exam, the following day in a course in
which they are both struggling. on the way back to the library after
enjoying the ice cream, Bobby correctly explains to Usman that they
have a...

larger than normal chance of getting sick after this exam is over
should have decreased levels of circulating T3 or T4

Which is a correct statement about the pituitary gland?

The neurohypophysis receives 2 endocrines via axons
The portal vasculature is within the infundibulum that connects
to the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland

Which is a correct feature of the endocrine system?

it has messengers that move through the smallest of the fluid compartments
all of its endocrine 2s are released by the anterior pituitary gland

Amines are to _______ as steroids are to __________


Which is a correct statement about the endocrines of the posterior
pituitary gland?

Their deficiency has been linked to issues with socialization

Oxytocin levels are associated with

The release of milk
Formation of social bonds
Uterine contractions

While discussing phys recently, Phys Phabs Garrett and Grace
simultaneously related that, during the P wave, calcium is being
______ the cytosol of the cells of the _________

added to ; atria

In cadiac muscle cells ______ gated channels in the sarcoplasmic
reticulum allow calcium passage into the ______ fluid

chemically ; intracellular

Which is a correct order of higher and then lower calcium pools in
our bodies?

Crystalline to Intracellular
Intracellular to Extracellular
Crystalline to Restricted in Plasma

Which is a pairing of immediately adjacent parts of the heart?

right ventricle to tricuspid valve
Pulmonary artery to semilunar valve

Cardiac cells contain....

Gap junctions
Sarcoplasmic reticulum

Action potentials do not move directly from atrial to ventricular
cells because a highly ________ layer separates the two and forces the
electrical movement to be via the _______ node

Lipophilic ; atrioventricular

Blood moving from the inferior vena cava just entered the _______
chamber of the heart. Like the other 3 chambers that particular
chamber being that specific size is due to its need to move the blood
the _______ distance

smallest ; shortest

Which of the following endocrines will positively impact human growth
when released?

Thyroid hormones

Which is a correct statement about SV?

It is not the minimum ventricular volume of blood
it is a component in determining the cardiac output

An individual with hypercortisolism could initially be diagnosed with

osteoporosis (i.e. weak bones or diabetes)

During a cardiac cycle, electrical signals are passed in the heart
directly from the ______ to the ________

Bundles of His ; purkinje fibers

As its name implies, hypercalcemia occurs when the plasma level of
calcium is too high, which is a correct statement about a possible cause?

an excessive amount of bone reabsorption is occurring

While on his intergalactic trip over the summer, Allen encountered a
humanoid alien from a very earth like planet. The aliens heart has 2
atria but they both empty into a single ventricle. Which is a correct
statement about this aliens heart?

Compared to humans, the amount of oxygen in its aorta would be greater.

Patient X has a murmur present just after her QRS complex appears on
her electrocardiogram, which is a correct statement about Patient X's
condition within her heart?

Her tricuspid valve is failing to close properly (ask ally)
Her blood is moving to her pulmonary veins and artery

If a small ball is placed within the inferior vena cava, then it will
go through the _______ before going through the _______

Pulmonary artery ; Lungs

During a texting exchange to prepare for their meeting on Saturday,
Brutus and Testudo found themselves discussing heart phys after
Testudo admitted that he recently learned that his heart makes
"lub shh dub" sounds. Which is a correct statement about
Testud's heart?

he has damage to a cuspid valve
Blood is back flowing into his atria

High glucose levels occur with ______ and low blood pressure occurs
with _______

Diabetes ; Addison's syndrome

Which is a correct statement about a single contraction pattern and heart?

The cuspids close after the P wave and before the T wave begins
Atrial repolarization occurs during the QRS complex

Increasing the end diastolic volume will ______ increase the cardiac
output. Increasing the heart rate will ______ increase the cardiac output.

Only sometimes ; Always

To increase the cardiac output of a patient, her end diastolic volume
could be _________ and her ________ she definitely be increased

Decreased ; Conduction Velocity

The _______ are more elastic than _______ . the elasticity helps them
to _______ the variation in pressure.

Arteries ; Veins ; Decrease

Which is a correct match of extrinsic control and impact on
arterioles near the liver?

Epinephrine - Vasoconstriction
Angiotensin II - Vasoconstriction
Nitric Oxide - Vasodilation

A critical patient receives an injection of epinephrine. This patient
will consequently experience _______

Vasodilation in her bicep

An individual experiencing the impacts of ventricular hypertrophy may
have the symptom of ...?

Increased end diastolic volume
Decreased mitochondrial output

In the aorta, the hydrostatic pressure is _______ during the
diastolic phase than the systolic phase. An overall increase in the
blood pressure in the aorta will lead to a ________ cardiac output

Lower ; Lower

Which is a correct statement about RBC's?

They are NOT destroyed by the kidneys
They cannot complete our Eq.2

When decreased baroreceptor activity is received by your ________, it
will cause your _______ nervous system activity to increase

Brainstem ; Sympathetic

To catch most villains, spiderman utilizes his web blasters (located
in his wrist) to shoot webbing when and where it is needed. When in
use his web blasters will experience ______ blood flow due to ________

Increased ; Active hyperemia

Which of the following is one of the three main plasma proteins?


As part of her preparation for her trip to Machu Picchu, Gabriella
ran laps at her local track. During one of those runs she focused on
her legs and kept her upper body relaxed. Which is a correct statement
about her physiology during that run?

Endocrines caused increased blood pressure going to the leg muscles
The decreased blood flow to the brain will cause brain arterioles
to constrict

On his intergalactic vacation, Allen encountered an alien from
Physopia whose heart, while otherwise identical to a human heart, was
not regulated by the aliens autonomic NS. Allen correctly proposed
that it regulates its heart via

Changing ion distributions
Releasing endocrines
Altering body temp

Patient X is having trouble with hypertension. While he incorrectly
contributed it to the stress of his job, his doctor correctly told him that....

His kidneys were having a problem in being able to reduce his blood volume
His posterior pituitary gland is releasing too much vasopressin

Which is a correct statement about blood?

Platelets are NOT a plasma protein
In fully oxygenated blood, healthy blood cells are not always red
in color
A typical blood sample has similar amounts of water and RED blood cells

Brutus meets up with Sparty who is in full out panic over how his
team's big ten season has been going. Brutus correctly realizes that,
in his current condition, Sparty's ________ compared to before the
football season when the Spartan's were expected to contend for the championship.

Angiotensin II levels are elevated
His vessels are narrower

Which is a statement about red blood cells

They are biconcave ellipses
their hemoglobin holds up to 4 oxygens
They distribute CO2 throughout the body

Avalons latest experiments involve isolating DNA from a suspected
serial killer to match with trace hair samples left at the scene of
several murders. Which component of the serial killers blood would be
useful to avalon?

The Buffy Coat
White blood cells

The sarcoplasmic reticulum surrounds ________ and is a storage
compartment for _______.

Myofibers ; Calcium

For olfaction ______ of smell occurs within the olfactory bulb and
conscious recognition smells occurs within the _____ cortex

Detection and perception ; orbitofrontal

which is a correct pairing first of the primary taste type and then
its activating compound?

Umami - Glutamate

On an intergalactic trip over the summer, Allen was reading books in
the weightless, starboard lounge, while his ship orbited a friendly
planet. He correctly expected that when he looked out at the planet
after reading a chapter that it would be upside down because...

His utricle and saccule were not functioning properly

A change in the volume of the stomach is caused by ______ muscle. A
change in the width of striations is caused by ______ muscle.

Smooth ; Cadiac

Stereo cilia register changes in _______ and are located in the ________

Movement ; Inner ear

When compared to olfaction, there are _______ receptors for gustation
and the distribution across the types of receptors is _______ variable
over time for gustation.

Fewer ; Less

In the Saccule, the _______ receptors will be primarily activated by
the changing of ______'s distribution.

Mechano ; water

You and your friend cannot agree on where to go for lunch today to
discuss physiology. You are interested in finding something very tart
and sour, but your friend refuses. Thinking correctly about your
physiologies, you likely have a ______ current pH and ____ number of
sour receptors than your friend.

Higher ; the same

A low pitched sound will cause ____ to activate channels at the _______

Water ; Cochlear Apex

Due to the strenuous and often anaerobic practices Gabriella did in
preparation for her trip to Macho Picchu, her body was running an
elevated level of metabolism. Consequently, we would expect her to
have made what food choices based on taste?

Desired foods that bound to the soon-to-be-official receptor category

As occurs often on the OSU campus, two students are drinking coke
products. The one student asks the other how he could possibly enjoy
diet coke when it has such an after taste. The Diet-Coke lover
correctly suggests that the other might want to...

Take an antagonist for the chemoreceptors in his throat
Not have any changes made to his Umami receptors

On his walk through the camp Randall stadium, Brutus finds Bucky
sitting atop a trampled kangaroo that had not been alive for several
weeks and smells very foul to Brutus. Bucky does not appear to notice
the smell. Brutus quickly and correctly realizes that Bucky ____ a
less sensitive olfactory system than brutus. He correctly wonders is
Bucky's failure to notice the stench is due to ____ nasal passages.

Does not have ; Dehydrated

Which is a correct statement about skeletal muscles?

Unlike smooth muscles, skeletal muscles can only be stimulated
Action potentials will occur within the space of the myofiber

Which is a correct statement about the olfactory system?

Neither statement will be correct

To be nice to your roommates this morning, you decide to get up and
get dressed without turning on the light in your windowless apartment.
Which is a correct statement about how your visual system was working
while you got ready this morning? (assuming you have a typical visual system)

Your green cones are responding to different wavelengths of light
than your red cones

Avalon's latest experiment continuously removes all of the
intracellular calcium from her human test subjects for 10 seconds but
without disturbing the electrochemical gradients. During this 10-sec
test, the people are...

Unable to hear any sounds

Involuntary nystagmus causes the individuals eyes to continuously
shift rapidly because the brain thinks the head is turning. Which is a
correct potential explanation of involuntary nystagmus?

It is not a problem with the cochlea

Tetanus is a _____ muscular contraction. The fused form generates the
______ force from that myofiber.

Sustained ; Maximal

Which is a correct statement about smooth muscle?

Its activated calmodulin does not phosphorylate the myosin head to
cause cross bride cycling
It has dense bodies that attach to the actin

the H band is to ______ as the band is to the length of _______

Myosin ; Myosin

During his intergalactic trip this summer, Allen did some workouts
that involved unsuccessfully attempting to lift various types of
spacecraft off the current planet he was visiting. Which is a correct
statement about Allen's contractions during these attempted lifts?

He was spending more time doing isometric concentrations than
eccentric concentrations
His latent period were quite large

Each myofiber has _____ neuron(s) innovating it and each motor unit
innervates _______ myofiber(s).

only one ; mulitple

Which is a correct statement about slow oxidative muscle?

It will require less ATP than a fast-glycolitic one
It will have less glycogen then a fast-oxidative one
It will be more similiar in color to fast-oxidative ones

To increase tension in a smooth muscle, we need _______ myosin light
chain phosphates and closer ________

Inactivated ; dense bodies

while sizing up his opponent, Brutus notices that some of Willie the
wildcats H zones are suddenly reduced in width. Brutus correctly
includes that Willie's...

M lines are getting closer to his Z line/discs

On the flight back to Machu Picchu, from a classic sitting position
(i.e. what you should be doing right now), Gabriella decided to admire
her new acquired Incan left shoe. Without impacting her hip position,
to raise her foot from the floor up into her viewing range, she had to
______ her flexor muscle.

Neither stimulate nor inhibit

Maria was born with a genetic condition that inhibits skeletal muscle
development by about 50%. She correctly explains to her friends that
because of her condition she _____ they do

Does more eccentric contractions than

Myofibers have sodium channels that open due to _______ causing a(n) ______

Acetocholine ; graded potentials
Threshold potentials ; graded potentials

During a spinal reflex, the receptor sends the information to the
______ which causes the observed response

spinal cord

Which is a correct statement about the comparison between lifting a
light and a heavy weight?

the response will be greater with the light weight
the heavy weight will require the activation of more motor units

For Avalon's latest experiment she developed a method to remove all
the tropomyosin from a cell w/out disrupting the cells structural
integrity (nothing will fall apart) Which is a correct statement about
cells with this modification when their cytosolic calcium is increased?

In a skeletal myofiber, the level of CBC will not increase
In smooth muscle, the process to start CBC will not be impacted

Because these two are ______ , _______ are like _______

not always easily visible ; I bands ; H zones
able to change size ; sarcomeres ; light bands

To move from unfused to fused tetanus, that muscles motor neuron will
need to increase its....

Action potential frequency
Acetocholine exocytosis

World wide organophosphates are the most common form of poisoning
they inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase. A person
experiencing this poison's toxic effects will experience

increase tetanus

During relaxation of skeletal muscle calcium is moved to the _____
and the _____ level in the cytosol is decreasing.

sarcoplasmic reticulum ; ATP

The trachea is part of the ______ zone where there is _____ and ___
gas exchange

Conducting ; low air resistance ; no

During yesterdays lunch, Salunas were discussing with Amina and
Mallory about the wonders of physio. Amina mentioned her bucket list
entry of reaching the summit of mount everest. Salunas correctly told
her that....

She will likely have less free iron in her blood after completing her climb
Her kidneys will need to be very active during her climb preparations

On his intergalactic trip, one of Allen's fellow human traveler began
to show the symptoms of a stroke. Recalling his physiology he quickly
got her to the ship's med facility and told them to administer _____
activators to solubilize her _____

Plasminogen ; fibrin

In her most recent experiment, Avalon developed avalopoetin, an
agonist of erythropoietin, a patient with _____ anemia is likely to
respond well to avalopoeitin treatment, unlike a patient with _____
anemia, who would likely experience neg- impacts

Renal ; sickle cell

If the partial pressures of gases in the lungs matched the partial
pressures of gases in our normal, sea level atmosphere, we would have
_____ loading of O2 into the blood and ______ unloading of carbon
dioxide out of the blood.

increase ; increase

Within the _____ zone, type __ alveolar cells could not function
properly without the type __ cells

respiratory ; I ; II

Which is a correct matching of a component and where it enhances the
hemostasis process?

Thrombin - coagulation

A patient had been diagnosed with severe hemolytic anemia and is
currently recovering, which is a correct statement about her
physiology during this recovery?

her folic acid levels will be decreasing
her plasminogen levels will be unchanged
her hematocrit will be increasing

An open wound to a blood vessel will almost immediately have _____
adhering to the area and a _____ feedback process initiated.

platelets ; positive

The pleural sac allows the transfer of the movement of the _____ to
the _______

diaphragm ; lungs

Lungs and thoracic cavity between the blood and the alveoli the
partial pressure of gradient for O2 is opposite of and _______ the
partial pressure gradient for carbon dioxide

much greater than

Which is a correct statement about gas exchange?

if the partial pressure of CO2 in the alveoli was doubled, CO2 would
move into the blood

Patient X is seen in the ER because she fainted. Preliminary tests
and medical history reveal that she is hypotensive, gets fatigued
easily when exercising, and has maintained her current weight for over
a year. Which is a correct statement about patient X?

her iron levels need to be checked to eliminate nutritional anemia as
the cause
the receptors in her bone marrow are likely not responding to her
normal levels of erythropoietin

Which is a correct statement about the respiratory situation for
extremely premature infants?

without medical intervention their alveolar surface area is reduced
due to the lack of surfactant
their type I alveolar cells are mature enough to do gas exchange

Which is a correct statement about the respiratory system?

gas exchange occurs within the respiratory zones only
the cells of the diaphragm have troponin not calmodulin

When Brutus took his beloved dog E2 for a walk, he failed to pay
attention to where he was walking and walked onto the archery field.
He realized his mistake when an arrow struck him though his thoracic
cavity side wall. Which is a correct statement about the situation for Burtus.

he will be able to move his diaphragm properly
the lung on the side where the arrow went through, the wall will not
have its alveoli collapsed

Pernicious anemia is to ______ as aplastic anemia is to ________

vitamin B-12 ; bone marrow

The bronchi control the amount of air reaching the alveoli by
altering the contraction of _____ muscles