Patient Care Flashcards


Reliability is The overall consistency of a measure
using bony landmarks goniometers


Reproducibility is the ability of an entire
experiment or study to be duplicated, either by the same researcher or
by someone else working independently.

Inter-rater reliability

Can 2 people measure the same joint and get the same number?

Intra-rater reliability

Can 1 person measure the same joint twice and get
the same number?


Tool used to measure joints ROM (both AROM and PROM)
comes in many shapes and sizes Always put the ruler
with the moving part and the blank one with the stationary bone

Elbow Flexion and Extention

Position= supine or sitting
Axis= lateral epicondyle of humerus
Proximal/fixed arm= middle of greater tubercle (lateral surface)
Distal/moving arm= forearm supinated, radial styloid process

Shoulder Flexion

Position= supine
Axis= lateral greater tubercle
Proximal/fixed arm= parallel to trunk
Distal/moving arm= lateral epicondyle of humerus

Shoulder Abduction

Position= supine
Axis= anterior aspect of head of the humerus
Proximal/fixed arm= parallel to trunk
Distal/moving arm= anterior aspect of the shaft of the humerus

Hip Flexion and Extention

Position= supine for flexion, prone for extension
Axis= greater trochanter
Proximal/fixed arm= parallel to trunk
Distal/moving arm= lateral femoral condyle

Hip Abduction and Adduction

Position= supine
Axis= ASIS on side you are measuring
Proximal/fixed arm= line to contralateral ASIS
Distal/moving arm= Patella ( long axis of femur)

Hip Internal and External Rotation

Position= sitting
Axis= mid patella
Proximal/fixed arm= perpendicular to the floor
Distal/moving arm= tibia

Knee Flexion and Extention

Position= supine
Axis= lateral epicondyle
Proximal/fixed arm= greater tubercle
Distal/moving arm= lateral malleolus

Ankle Dorsiflexion and Plantarflexion

Position= sitting or lying
Axis= lateral malleolus
Proximal/fixed arm= head of fibula (more common)
Distal/moving arm= parallel to 5th metatarsal

Ankle Inversion and Eversion

Position= sitting or lying
Axis= talocrural joint
Proximal/fixed arm= tibia
Distal/moving arm= 2nd metatarsal


active range of motion:
patient assists or performs independently using voluntary
muscle contraction/movement


passive range of motion:
the patient is unable or not permitted to move


an active-assisted range of motion:
Patiently is able to perform the ROM independently with
assistance required


The safe movement of a person from one surface to another or
from one position to another
independently/dependently/indirect assistance(standby

Assisted Transfer- supervision

supervision to ensure that safety measures are followed

Assisted Transfer- minimal assist

client is able to perform 75% or more of activity

Assisted Transfer- Moderate assist

client is able to perform 50-75% of the activity

Assisted Transfer- maximal assist

client is able to perform 25-49% of activtiy

Assisted Transfer- total assist

client is able to perform less than 25% of activity

Transfers- things you should ask before doing a transfer

1. is it a task or is it rehabilitation
2. reasons why transfers are task-oriented
3. reasons why transfers are rehabilitation

task vs rehabilitation

task- Getting from point A to point B ex-bathroom
back to bed

rehabilitation- Teaching/ less assistance

why transfers are task-oriented

doing it for the patient example; putting someone on
the bathroom toilet then back to bed

why transfers are rehabilitation

teaching them or helping the patient showing them how
they can do it more on their own they are able to help you
with the task given

anterior posterior lateral

front back outside inside

contralateral ipsilateral

opposite sides same sides

independently dependently

on their own needing assistance

Hemiplegia paralysis paresis

weakness on 1/2 of the body no movement on 1/2 of the
body weakness

syncope vertigo

fainting dizziness/room is spinning feeling