Anthropology Mid term 3 Flashcards

Prestige

Social honor or respect within a society.

Egalitarian Societies

Societies that recognize differences in status, wealth, or power.

Rank Societies

Societies in which people have unequal access to prestige and status
but not unequal access to wealth and power.

Stratified Societies

Societies characterized by considerable inequality in all forms of
social rewards that is, power, wealth, and prestige.

Social Mobility

The ability of people to change their social position within the society.

Class

A ranked group within a stratified society characterized by achieved
status and considerable social mobility.

Caste

A rigid form of social stratification in which membership is
determined by birth and social mobility is nonexistent.

Achieved Status

The status an individual acquires during the course of her or his lifetime.

Ascribed status

the status a person has b virtue of birth.

Race

A subgroup of the human population whose members share a greater
number of physical traits with one another than they do with members
of other subgroups.

Ethnic Group

A group of people who share many of the same cultural features.

Assimilation

The process of the wider society absorbing a racial or ethnic group.

Population Transfer

The physical relocation of a minority group from one area to another

Genocide

The systematic annihilation of entire cultures or racial groups.

Functional Theory

A theory of social stratification that holds that social inequality
exists because it is necessary for the maintenance of society.

Conflict Theory

A theory of social stratification that explains social inequality as
the result of benefits derived by the upper classes using their power
and privilege to exploit those below them.

Proletariat

The term used in the conflict theory of social stratification to
describe the working class who exchange their labor for wages.

Religion

A set of beliefs in supernatural forces that functions to provide
meaning, peace of mind, and a sense of control over unexplained phenomena.

Imitative Magic

A from of magic based on the idea that the procedure performed
resembles the desired result; for example, sticking a doll-like image
with pins will harm the person the doll represents.

Contagious Magic

A form of magic based on the premise that things, once in contact
with a person (such as a lock of hair), continue to influence that
person after separation.

Magic

A system of supernatural beliefs that involves the manipulation of
supernatural forces for the purpose of interviewing in a wide range of
human activities and natural events,

Witchcraft

The practice of an inborn, involuntary, and often unconscious
capacity to cause harm to other people.

Sorcery

The performance of certain magical rites of purpose of harming other people.

Cult

In the early anthropologists literature, a nonjudgemental term that
refers to a religious group that has its own set of beliefs, practices
and rituals.

Individualistic Cults

The least complex type of religious organization in which each person
is his or her own religious specialist.

Vision Quest

A ritual found in some Plains indian cultures wherein, through
visions, people establish special relationships with spirits who
provide them with knowledge, power, and protection.

Shamans

A part-time religious specialist who is taught to have supernatural
powers by virtue of birth, training, or inspiration.

Shamanistic Cult

A type of religious organization in which part time religious
specialist called shamans intervene with the duties on behalf of their clients.

Common Cults

Type of religious organization in which groups of ordinary people
conduct religious ceremonies for the well-being of the total community.

Rites of PAssage

Ceremonies that celebrate the transition of a person from one social
status to another.

Rites of Solidarity

Ceremonies performed for the sake of enhancing social integration
among groups of people.

Ecclesiastical Cult

Highly complex religious organizations in which full-time clergy are employed.

Nativistic Movements

A religious force for social change found among native Americans.

Cargo Cults

Revitalization movements in Melanesia intended to bring new life and
purpose into a society.

Revitalization Movements

Religious movements designed to bring about a new way of life within
a society.

Religious Nationalism

A trend toward merging traditional religious principles with the
workings of government.

Transformational

The quality of an artistic process that converts an image into a work
of art.

Graphic arts

Forms of art that include painting and drawing on various surfaces.

Plastic arts

Artistic expression that involves molding certain forms, such as sculpture.

Ethnomusicology

The study of the relationship between music and other aspects of culture.

Dance

Intentional, rhythmic, nonverbal body movements that are culturally
patterned and have aesthetic value.

Colonialism

The political, economic, and sociocultural domination of a territory
and its people by foreign nation.

Corvee Labor

A system of required labor practiced during the colonial period.

Less-developed Countires

Countries that have a relatively low gross national product and low
annual family income.

Neocolonialism

The process of developed nations continuing to exert economic,
political, and military influence over less developed countries even
though the official period of colonization ended in the 1960's.

Multinational Corporations

Large corporations that have economic operations in a number of
different countries throughout the world; their resources may be
greater than the gross national product of independent nations.

Globalization

The worldwide process, dating back to the 1989 fall of Berlin Wall,
that includes a revolution in information technology, a dramatic
opening of markets, and the privatization of government services.

Modernization Theory

The idea that differences in economic development may be explained by
inherent sociocultural differences between the rich and the poor.

World Systems Theory

The idea that differences in economic development may be explained b
the exploitation of the poor by the rich nations of the world.

Indigenous Population

People who are the original inhabitants of a region, identity with a
specific cultural heritage, and play no significant role in government.