Orthotic Fitter Course Flashcards

The largest nerve in the body is:

Sciatic Nerve
Sciatic NerveSciatic Nerve. The sciatic
nerve is the largest and longest spinal nerve in the human body.
Extending from the lumbar and sacral plexuses in the lower back, the
sciatic nerve runs through the buttocks and into the thighs. It
delivers nerve signals to and from the muscles and skin of the
thighs, lower legs and feet.Function[edit] The sciatic nerve
innervates the skin of the foot, as well as the entire lower leg
(except for its medial side). The skin to the sole of the foot is
provided by the tibial nerve, and the lower leg and upper surface of
the foot via the common fibular nerve. The sciatic nerve also
innervates muscles.

The spine is placed in what position when laying prone?


In prone position, the patient lies on the
abdomen with head turned to one side; the hips are not flexed.
This is the only bed position that allows full extension of the
hip and knee join

If the patient has a positive apprehension test what condition is
being assessed?

Patellar Subluxation
A subluxing patella (kneecap)
is a temporary, partial dislocation of the kneecap from its normal
position in the groove in the end of the thigh bone (femur). This
groove is located between two bumps at the end of the thigh bone
called the femoral condyles.

lliotibial Band Syndrome causes pain near this joint:

A painful condition in which connective tissue
rubs against the thighbone. Iliotibial band syndrome occurs when the
connective tissue (ligament) extending from the pelvic bone to the
shinbone becomes so tight that it rubs against the thighbone.
Distance runners are especially susceptible to it.The main symptom is
pain between the hip and knees that worsens with activity.

A patient calls and complains that their elbow brace you fit them
with earlier in the week is preventing him/her from flexing their to
the ROM the brace is set. Which area of the arm could have a misplace strap?

Antecubital Space
antecubital fossa -The triangular region in the
forearm on the anterior (flexor) surface of the elbow.

The boney landmark lateral to malleolus is found at?

The distal end of the fibula

If a patient is flexing their elbow what plane does this occur?

Sagittal Plane

When fitting a patient with a Pavlik harness, you would be concerned
with this?

Social History

If a patient receives a Functional Walking Boot you will always
instruct them how to bare full weight.


A patient calls with a prescription from their physician to fit a
back brace and the diagnosis is low back pain and scoliosis. How
should the Orthotic Fitter proceed?

Obtain more information

Knee pain when walking up and down stairs could be associated these conditions?

A condition in which the cartilage under the
kneecap is damaged due to injury or overuse. Patellofemoral pain
syndrome is the most common cause of knee pain seen by doctors. It's
common in people who participate in sports, especially women and
young adults.The most common symptom is knee pain that increases with
stair climbing or squatting movements.

A Acute Syndesmosis sprain is best fit with?

Walking Boot
A high ankle sprain, also known as a
syndesmotic sprain, is a sprain of
the syndesmotic ligaments that connect the tibia and fibula in the
lower leg, thereby creating a mortise and tenon joint for the
ankle. High ankle sprains are
described as high because they are located above the ankle.

When measuring a patient pre-operatively for a post operative
prefabricated LSO, you should always?

Sit on a stool

A physician sees the patient immediately post-trauma for
non-displaced midshaft tib/fib fracture, and the physician sends the
patient directly to you for a fit and delivery of an off the shelf
Tibia Fracture Brace, you should?

Refer to the Orthotist

Anterior displacement of a vertebra is a description for this condition:


is the forward displacement of a vertebral bone in relation to the
natural curve of the spine, most commonly occurring after a fracture,
and most often the fifth lumbar vertebra. A spinal disorder in which a
bone (vertebra) slips forward onto the bone below it.

An Orthotic Fitter should never do a patient assessment?


The listed are intrinsic factors that play a role in a normal gait except?

A, Body Type
B. Footwear
C. Joint ROM (range of motion)
D. All the above

Acronion is found in this part of the body? (Swimmer's Shoulder)

Shoulder pain caused
by connective tissue (a tendon) rubbing on a shoulder blade.

A. Hip
B. Back
C. Shoulder
D. All the above

In the anatomical position the thumb is:

In the
anatomical position, the radius is lateral to the ulna.
A simpler example is the "thumb" is
lateral to the "pinky." Medial - Closer to the midline;
on the inner side. The sternum (breast plate) is medial to the
clavcle (shoulder bone).

A. Abducted
B. Medial the the Midline
C. Supinated


Standing erect face and palms forward arms at side (thumbs will be out)


ABOVE - Closer to the head


BELOW - Farther away from the head

Anterior or Ventral

Toward or closer to the FRONT

Posterior or Dorsal

Toward or closer to the BACK


Closer to midline


Farther from midline--closer to SIDE






Closer to point of ATTACHMENT/closer to TRUNK


Farther from point of attachment or trunk


Closer to the surface



Body Sections ( or crosscuts)can be labeled as

1. Sagittal--creates RIGHT/LEFT portionsMid-sagittal--is
exactly on midline2. Transverse or horizontal--creates superior
and inferior (or TOP and BOTTOM)3. Frontal or coronal--CREATES
ANTERIOR/POSTERIOR portions, (or front/back)

Ribs are what position to lungs?

Ribs are SUPERFICIAL to lungs (closer to surface)

Ribs are SUPERFICIAL to lungs (closer to surface)

Same distance

When visualizing body...always think what position?

Anatomical position...standing, face and palms forward, and arms by

Little finger would be what to thumb?

MEDIAL...CLoser to midline

Thumb would be what to little finger?

LATERAL...farther from midline

A fracture is always defined as a complete break in the bone?


A person with a ganglion cyst can receive this type of brace?

A noncancerous lump,
often on the tendons or joints of wrists and hands. A ganglion
cyst is a tumor or swelling on top of a joint or the covering
of a tendon (tissue that connects muscle to bone). ... Ganglion
cysts most commonly occur on the back of the hand at the wrist
joint but they can also develop on the palm side of the wrist

A. Cock up Wrist Brace
B. Walker Boot
C. Thumb Brace

Pertaining to the gait the cycle which muscle plays the major role
during mid-swing?

The point at which
the swinging leg passes the stance-phase leg and the two feet are
side by side.The swing phase occupies about 40% of the gait cycle. A
single gait cycle is also known as a stride. Each
gait cycle or stride has two
phases: Stance Phase, the
phase during which the foot remains in contact with
the ground, and the. Swing Phase, the
phase during which the foot is not in contact with
the ground.

A. Hamstring
B. Anterior Tibialis
C. Foot Extrinsics
D. All of the above

You receive a fax prescription for a patient for a hernia belt. You
are trying to reach the patient by phone,but are unsuccessful. You may
leave a voice message for the patient to make an appointment for the
hernia belt fitting; on the phone number you were provided?


You receive a prescription for a functional unloading type of KO and
the physician has written to treat a Grade II MCL Sprain, what should
you do?

Rupture of the
collagen fibers which connect the ends of the femur (thigh bone) and
the tibia (shin bone)

Wearing a
lightweight cast or brace that allows your knee to move backward
and forward while restricting side-to-side movement. It usually is
recommended to keep the knee immobilized like this for 72 hours,
depending on the severity of the injury.

A. Order Varus Producing Brace
B. Order Valgus Producing Brace
C. Order Medial Unloader

When measuring for a compression stocking this should be done?


A. At the end of the day to insure leg is at it's maximum size.
B. After patient has been sitting for a few minutes to
allow the leg to swell.
C. First thing in the morning so that swelling is decreased.
D. At the time of the patient's appointment.

Instructing a patient to use a cane the patient should be instructed
to use the cane in?

A. Hand that is most comfortable.
B. Hand on the side with weakness or injury.
C. Use right hand one and left hand the next.
D. Hand on the side that is strongest.

In regards to HIPPA regulations, confidential health information
applies only to written records and lab results?

Health Information. The Privacy Rule protects all
"individually identifiable health information"
held or transmitted by a covered entity or its business associate,
in any form or media, whether electronic, paper, or oral. The
Privacy Rule calls this information "protected health
information (PHI)."12

identifiable health information� is information, including
demographic data, that relates to:

the individual�s
past, present or future physical or mental health or
the provision of
health care to the individual, or
the past, present,
or future payment for the provision of health care to the


Which is not personal protective equipment as defined by OSHA?

A. Lab Coat
B. Gloves
C. Goggles
D. Mask

Fitting all OTS braces is within the Scope of Practice for an
Orthotic Fitter?


Which motions occur at both the elbow and shoulder joints?

A. Abduction and flexion
B. Circumduction and flexion
C. Extension and flexion

Motion possible at shoulder joint?

Flexion, extension/hyperextension, abduction, adduction, medial and
lateral rotation, horizontal abduction and horizontal adduction.??

Shoulder joint?

Ball-and-socket joint with movement in all three axes. Three degrees
of freedom.

Degrees of shoulder flexion

0 - 180 degress

Abduction and adduction

Away from Medial and towards medial 180 degrees

The lumbar spine consists of how many vertebrae?

Vertebral column in
general. The vertebral column usually consists of 33 vertebrae: 24
presacral vertebrae (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, and 5 lumbar) followed
by the sacrum (5 fused sacral vertebrae) and the
coccyx (4 frequently fused coccygeal vertebrae).

A. 1
B. 12
C. 5
D. 4

What nerve is most likely affected on a patient with foot drop?

Peroneal Nerve
Injury (Foot Drop)

A peroneal nerve
injury (also called foot drop or drop
foot), is a peripheral nerve injury that affects a
patient�s ability to lift the foot at the ankle.

The causes of foot
drop may be divided into three general categories: neurologic,
muscular, and anatomic.

A. Tibial nerve
B. Peroneal nerve
C. Medial plantar nerve

An infant correctly fit in a Pavlik harness the hips are held in?

A. Extension and internal rotation
B. Extension and adduction
C. Flexion and abduction
D. Flexion and internal rotation

A boney landmark at the distal end of the wrist is the?

a slender projection
of bone, such as that from the lower surface of the temporal bone of
the skull, or those at the lower ends of the ulna and radius.

A. Epicondyle
B. Styloid Process
C. Radial Tuberosity

A bone that articulates with the clavicle medially?

A. Sternum
B. Collarbone
C. Scapula

Common name for clavicle?


3 division of bones in the hand?

Phalanges, metacarpals, carpals


Classified as short bones

The most common type of wrist fracture is through the end of the
radius bone of the forearm, called?

Distal radius fractures

What is the best position for a patient while tightening a spinal orthosis?

means lying
horizontally with the face and torso facing up

A. Standing
B. Supine
C. Prone
D. Sitting

When fitting a Tibial Fracture brace the primary use of the shoe
insert is to?

A. Prevent migration
B. Allow plantar flexion
C. Prevent inversion and eversion of the foot

Where should a metatarsal pad be located?

A. Lateral to the metatarsal heads
B. Proximal to the metatarsal heads
C. Distal to the metatarsal heads
D. Medial to the metatarsal heads

When measuring a patient for therapeutic shoes you should have the patient?

A. Sit with hips and knees at 90 degrees
B. Stand with weight on one leg
C. Stand with feet shoulder length apart
D. Remove their socks

When fitting a patient with a WHO the most functional position would be?

Wrist Hand Orthosis

A. Slightly extended
B. Slightly flexed
C. Fully extended
D, Fully flexed

If a patient comes to you with a prescription for an orthosis for CMC
arthritis, you should provide what brace?

Arthritis occurs
when the cartilage � the flexible tissue that covers and protects
the joints wears out.

A. Ankle Brace
B. Thumb Brace
C. Elbow Brace

A single cycle of gait is defined as the time ?

R - L - R or 1 - 2 -
3 steps

A. From heel off on one foot to heel off of the other foot
B. From heel off of one foot to push off of the other foot
C. From heel off of one foot to heel off of the other foot
D. Foot flat to mid-stance

A patient has an acute compression fracture at T11 level. What type
of orthosis is best to provide for this fracture?

A Jewett is a type
of spinal Orthosis that stabilizes the upper thoracic to the lower
lumbar spine. It is a dynamic Orthosis which places the spine into
hyperextension in an effort to offload the anterior aspect of one or
more vertebral bodies.

A. LSO Clamshell
B. Dorsolumbar Corset
C. Jewett Hyperextension Orthosis

Genu Valgus is a position of the knee joint commonly called?

commonly called
"knock-knee", is a condition in which the knees angle in
and touch one another when the legs are straightened.

A. Bowlegged
B. Recurvatum
C. Knock Knee
D. Normal Knee

An EO could be ordered for all these condition except?

are externally
applied devices to the upper limbs or segments of the arm to help
improve or restore function or structural characteristics of
affected muscles, joints and tendons. Some types of elbow and
forearm orthoses comprise braces, stabilizers, sprints, sleeves and straps.

A. Post OP Biceps repair
B. Epicondylitis
C. Olecranon Fracture
D. Colles Fracture

Volar surface is the same as?

Pertaining to the
palm or the sole. For example, the volar surface of
the forearm is the portion of the forearm that is on the same side
as the palm of the hand.

A. Palmar surface
B. Plantar surface
C. Dorsal surface
D. Medial surfacce

The cervical spine curves?

The cervical
spine is comprised of seven vertebrae: C1, C2, C3, C4,
C5, C6, and C7...is delicate�housing the spinal
cord that sends messages from the brain to control all aspects of
the body�while also remarkably strong and flexible, allowing
movement in all directions.

A. Posterior
B. Anterior
C. Neither

The Thoracic spine curves?

The thoracic
spine refers to the upper- and middle-back. It joins the
cervical spineand extends down about five inches
past the bottom of the shoulder blades, where it connects with the
lumbar spine.

A. Posterior
B. Anterior
C. Neither

The Lumbar spine curves?

The lumbar region of
the spine, more commonly known as the lower back, consists of five
vertebrae labeled L1 through L5. The lumbar region
is situated between the thoracic, or chest, region of the spine, and
the sacrum.

A. Posterior
B. Anterior
C. Neither

To move an extremity away from the medline is called?

A. Abduction
B. Adduction
C. Cicumduction


A. Moving away from body
B. Moving in a circular motion
C. Moving towards the body

To move the forearm in Pronation is?

Pronation is medial rotation of the forearm so that the palm faces
posteriorly (toward the rear).

To move the forearm in Supination is?

This movement is lateral rotation of the forearm so the palm in the
previous example faces anteriorly.


This foot-specific action is moving the foot so the sole (bottom of
the foot) faces inward.


This term means moving your foot so the sole faces outward


Elevating the foot, or moving the foot until the toes point upward,
is dorsiflexion.


This term is a specific kind of depression where you tilt the foot
until the toes point down.

The cuboid is located _____________ calcaneus.

cuboid bone is one of the seven tarsal bones
located on the lateral (outer) side of the foot.
This bone is cube-shaped and connects the foot and the ankle. It
also provides stability to the foot.

Calcaneus the large bone forming the heel. It
articulates with the cuboid bone of the foot and the talus bone of
the ankle, and the Achilles tendon (or tendo calcaneus ) is
attached to it.

A. Anterior to
B. Lateral to
C. Proximal to
D. Distal to

A patient arrives to the office for a walker boot and they have Grade
3 pitting Edema, what should you do?

edema is graded on a scale from 1 to 4, which is based on
both the depth the "pit" leaves and how long the pit
remains. A patient with a score of 1 has edema that
is slight (roughly 2mm in depth) and disappears rapidly. A score of
2 is deeper (4mm) and disappears within 15 seconds. A score of 3 is
deeper yet (6mm), and can last longer than a minute; in stage 3
pitting edema the extremity also looks grossly swollen. Finally,
stage 4 is the most severe with deep pitting (8mm or greater in
depth) that may last more than 2 minutes.

Pitting edema is a
physical examination finding that occurs when you press on a
patient's skin, usually the shins, ankles, or feet, and a
"pit" forms at the site of pressure.

A. Sale the patient compressing stockings
B. Wrap the patient with an ace wrap
C. Call the physician

Which is not a risk factor for venous insufficiency?

Improper functioning
of the vein valves in the leg, causing swelling and skin changes.

A. Prolonged standing
B. Traveling
C. Heredity
C. Lack of strength

Which of the products below would provide the most cervical stabilization?

A. Philadelphia Collar
B. Miami J
D. Soft Collar

What is a Miami J collar used for?

Your doctor has
prescribed a Miami J collar, a cervical neck brace
(also called a cervical collar) for you.

Its purpose is to keep your neck and spine straight and to help
healing by supporting your neck bones.

The brace above provides more stabilization because?
Stabilization to the front

A. Material
B. Length of lateral support
C. Length of anterior support

The difference between LO and LSO is the length?

Main type of brace
used to correct a sideways, or lateral, scoliotic curve in the mid
to lower spine.

lumbosacral orthosis

Rigid braces

braces (elastic braces)

A. True
B. False

What is the primary function of a joint?

A. Motion
B. Support
C. Attach one bone to the other

When fitting an LSO corset, the side laces for the traditional fit
should have an _____ opening on the lateral side after tightening?

A. 4 inch
B. 1 1/2
C. 3 inch

A functional knee orthosis for an ACL insufficiency should?

anterior cruciate
ligament insufficiency

A. Prevent Hyperextension
B. Limit Flexion
C. Prevent Derotation

MMT (medial meniscus tear) is acronym that pertains to a diagnosis
relating to this part of the body?

Medial meniscal tears

ligaments of the knee

A. Malleoli
B. Knee
C. Hip
D. All the above

What would a prolapse of the annulus fibrosis describe?

A lumbar herniated
disc is a common cause of low back and leg pain (i.e. sciatica).
Intervertebral discs, which act as the spine's shock absorbers, are
located in between each vertebra. A tire-like band (annulus
fibrosis) encases a gel-like substance, the nucleus pulposus.

A. Stenosis
B. Herniated Disc
C. Spondylosis

A patient who sustains a compression fracture will have serve pain
until braced? Hyperextension Braces - Corset Braces - Molded Jackets

Occurs when one or
more bones in the spine weaken and crumple

A compression
fracture is typically caused by a loss of bone mass (osteoporosis)
that occurs as part of aging. A fall, cough, or lifting of a heavy
object may cause a fracture of the back bones. Symptoms include back
pain, lost height, and a hunched-forward posture. Treatments include
physical therapy and medications to relieve pain. In rare cases when
symptoms are disabling, surgery may be needed

A. True
B. False

A patient stands like the picture could have?

a growth disorder of
the tibia (shin bone) that causes the lower leg to angle inward,
resembling a bowleg. Occurs in young children and adolescents.

A. Blount's disease
B. Osteophytes
C. Haglund's defomity

What type of heel wedge would you place in the shoe for a patient
with the above deformity who underwent a lateral menisectomy?

is the surgical
removal of all or part of a torn meniscus. A meniscus tear is a
common knee joint injury.

A. 1" Lateral wedge
B. 3/16" Lateral wedge
C. 3/16" Medial wedge

The image above would be described as?

A. Genu Valgum - commonly called "knock-knee
B. Genu Varum - called bow-leggedness,
bandiness, bandy-leg, and tibia vara

You fit a patient with a walker boot on their right lower extremity
and the patient ask if can drive themselves home.You should tell the patient?

A. To remove the walker to drive home
N. To call a taxi
C. To drive with the boot on

Posterior Tabilias Tendon Dysfunction could be with?

Posterior tibial
tendon dysfunction is one of the most common problems of the foot
and ankle. It occurs when the posterior tibial tendon becomes
inflamed or torn. As a result, the tendon may not be able to provide
stability and support for the arch of the foot,
resulting in flatfoot.

A. Ponsetti Brace
B. A Lateral Heel Wedge
C. An Arch Support

A Tennis elbow strap should mot be worn at all times?

A. True
B. False

A person with Hallux Valgus (Bunion) would require a shoe with?

Most people with
bunions find pain relief with simple treatments to reduce pressure
on the big toe, such as wearing wider
shoes or using pads in their shoes.

A. Metatarsal Pads
B. Thomas Heel
C. Wide toe shoe

Which device should you not find in the patient's fitting room?

A. Standing mirror
B. Cloth measurement tape
C. Brannock Device

Patient seen by you in the office complains that the prescription by
the doctor gave them is wrong the wrong brace and they want you to fit
a different kind what should you do first?

A. Give the client what they want.
B. Such to the client go to another facility
C. Assess the patient.

ML gauges are used to measure for lumbar corsets?

A. True
B. False

Within the scope of practice for an Orthotic Fitter you are allowed
to perform examination

A. True
B. False

A Hernia Truss fit and worn as instructed will cure a hernia?

A. True
B. False

The longest nerve in the body is:

Extending from the
lumbar and sacral plexuses in the lower back, the sciatic
nerve runs through the buttocks and into the thighs. It
delivers nerve signals to and from the muscles and skin of the
thighs, lower legs and feet.

A. Saphenuus Nerve
B. Sciatic Nerve
C. Sympathetic Nerve

The spine is place in what position when laying prone?

A. Extension
B. Flexion
C. Lateral

If a patient has a positive apprehension test what condition is being
assess? aka The Anterior Apprehension Test

is commonly used in
orthopedic examination of the shoulder when testing
for anterior shoulderinstability. It is commonly
coupled with the Relocation Test (aka Jobe
Relocation Test).

Forward pressure is
then applied to the posterior aspect of the humeral head by the
examiner or the table (if the patient is in
supine). A positive test for anterior
instability is if apprehension is presented by the patient
or if the patient reports pain.

A. SLAP Lesion
B. A positive Q-angle
C. Patellar Subluxation - patellar apprehension test

Lliotibal Band Syndrome causes pain near this joint?

A painful condition
in which connective tissue rubs against the thighbone.

Iliotibial band
syndrome occurs when the connective tissue (ligament) extending from
the pelvic bone to the shinbone becomes so tight that it rubs
against the thighbone. Distance runners are especially susceptible
to it.

The main symptom is
pain between the hip and knees that worsens with activity.

A. Hip
B. Shoulder
C. Knee

When obtaining the certifying physician statement for therappeutic
shoes The Meddi-Care Therapeutic Shoe Bill states: the statement can
be signed by?

A. A Chiropractor
B. A doctor of Osteopathic Medicine
C. A nurse Practitioner
D. All the above