Vitamin Flashcards Flashcards

Niacin (B3)

Function- energy metabolism, glycolysis, TCA cycle
Deficiency- Pellagra: dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea (3 D's)
Toxicity- flushing effect in body
Sources- protein, fish, meat, legumes, milk, coffee, tea


Function- carbohydrate metabolism
Deficiency- hyperglycemia
Toxicity- none known
Sources- eggs, whole grains


Function- wound healing, nerve fiber protection, required for iron use
Deficiency- bone demineralization, anemia
Toxicity- vomiting, diarrhea, wilson's disease, cirrhosis,
hepatitis, liver failure, neurological disorders
Sources- organ meats, seafood, leafy veggies, legumes, dried fruits

Riboflavin (B2)

** Sensitive to UV rays & artificial light
Function- coenzyme, release of energy from nutrients
Deficiency- ariboflavinosis (group of symptoms), cheilosis
(swollen/cracked lips), glositis (inflamed/swollen lips)
Toxicity- none reported
Sources- Milk


Function- tooth formation, prevents tooth decay
Deficiency- raises the risk of dental caries
Toxicity- fluorosis: mottling/brown spots on teeth, pitting of teeth
Sources- tea, seafood, seaweed, toothpaste


Function- growth processes, taste/smell ability, healing process,
immune system, insulin function
Deficiency- dwarfism, hypogonadism, hypogeusia (lack of taste),
hypomesia (lack of smell)
Toxicity- GI Tract distress
Sources- meat, fish, poultry, whole grains, legumes, eggs


Function- distributes oxygen through body
Deficiency- pale, tired, anemic, learning problems
Toxicity- hemosiderosis (storing too much iron), hemochromatosis can
damage tissue cells, liver/heart damage, diabetes, arthritis,
discoloration of skin
Sources- heme iron: animal sources/nonheme iron: plant sources


Function- maintains fluids inside and outside of cells
Deficiency- rare
Toxicity- rare
Sources- sodium chloride


Function- maintains fluid level inside cells
Deficiency- muscle weakness, confusion, decreased appetite, cardiac dysrhythmias
Toxicity- similar to deficiency
Sources- unprocessed foods, white potatoes with skin, sweet
potatoes, tomatoes, bananas, dairy, legumes


Function- blood pressure regulation, electrolyte
Deficiency- headache, muscle cramps, weakness, loss of
memory/appetite, hyponatremia
Toxicity- hypertension, edema
Sources- table salt, processed foods


Function- structural and storage functions, regulates nerve and
muscle function
Deficiency- twitching of muscles, weakness, convulsions
Toxicity- dehydration, diarrhea
Sources- unprocessed foods, whole grains, legumes, leafy greens,
broccoli, hard water


Function- nerve impulse, muscle contraction/relax, formation of blood
clots, pressure regulation
Deficiency- reduces bone density, osteoporosis
Toxicity- none reported
Sources- dairy products

Vitamin K

Function- cofactor in blood clotting factors
Deficiency- inhibits blood coagulation
Toxicity- decreased clotting time, increased risk of stroke
Sources- dark green leafy veggies, dairy, cereals, meats, fruits

Vitamin E

Function- antioxidant, protects, the integrity of lung and red blood
cell membranes
Deficiency- cystic fibrosis, biliary atresia (blocked bile duct)
Toxicity- none reported
Sources- vegetable oils, margarine, grains, nuts, seeds

Vitamin D

Function- bone mineralization, regulates calcium levels
Deficiency- Ricketts (malformed skeletons, increased risk of
fractures), osteomalacia (osteoporosis)
Toxicity- hypercalcemia (high calcium in blood), hypercalciuria
(high calcium in urine)
Sources- butter, egg yolks, fatty fish, liver

Vitamin A

Function- vision, bone growth, immune system, reproduction
Deficiency- xerophthalmia, night blindness, keratomalacia (hard, dry cornea)
Toxicity- skin takes on orange hue, blistered skin, weakness,
anorexia, vomiting, headache, enlargement of spleen and liver damage
Sources- in the fat of animal products, whole milk, butter, egg
yolk, fatty fish

Vitamin C

**destroyed by light, air, heat
Function- antioxidant, wound healing, collagen formation
Deficiency- scurvy, gingivitis, increased risk of infection
Toxicity- cramps, diarrhea, nausea, kidney stones, gout
Sources- citrus fruits, leafy green veggies, strawberries, tomatoes, potatoes

Cobalamin (B12)

Function- folate metabolism
Deficiency- pernicious anemia, megaloblastic anemia
Toxicity- none reported
Sources- foods of animal origin


**important in pregnant women
Function- synthesis of amino acids, RNA, DNA, formation of neural
tubes (spina bifida, anencephaly)
Deficiency- megaloblastic anemia
Toxicity- may mask the presence of pernicious anemia
Soucres- leafy greens, legumes, fruits, juices

Thiamin (B1)

Function- coenzyme in energy metabolism, nerve functioning related to
muscle actions
Deficiency- ataxia (muscle weakness/loss of coordination),
tachycardia (rapid beating of heart), wet beriberi (edema), dry
beriberi (paralysis/muscle wasting)
Toxicity- none reported
Sources- lean pork, grains/flours, legumes, seeds, nuts