What are interspecific interactions symbolized with?
0,+,-; includes interspecific competition
What can strong competition eliminate? What is this called?
local competition; competitive exclusion principle
When can two species co-exist in a community?
if one or more factors of their niche differs (resource partitioning)
What type of interaction is a predation interaction?
What species interaction does natural selection favor?
What are feeding adaptations in predation?
acute senses, claws, fangs, stingers, poison, fast, agile, camouflage
What kind of evolved adaptations belong to prey?
behavioral defense, alarm calls, adaptive coloration, and mimicking
What is behavioral defense?
fleeing, hiding, and self defense
What is adaptive coloration?
camouflage, cryptic coloration, chemical defense, odors and toxins,
What are the two types of mimicry?
batesian and mullerian
What type of species interaction is herbivory?
What type of special features do insects have? Mammals? Plants?
insects- special feet sensors
mammals- specialized digestive systems
plants- special adaptive protection (chemicals, spines, thorns, etc)
What type of interaction is parasitism?
What are the two different types of parasites?
endoparasites and ectoparasites
How much of a species is parasitic?
Can pathogens be lethal?
What has a deleterious effect on their host? What type of interaction
What types of organisms are pathogens?
bacteria, viruses, and protists
What type of interaction is mutualism?
+/+ (digestive bacteria)
What does mutualism result in?
evolution of adaptations in both species
What type of interaction is commensalism? Are they easy to document?
+/0 (sucker fish/shark); no
What is a trophic structure determined by?
What is transfer of energy?
a food web
What do food webs link together?
many food chains
Is 100% of energy transferred?
no, it never is
What is the most dominant species in a habitat?
the most abundant species with the highest biomass
What is a keystone species in a habitat?
not necessarily an abundant species, but they greatly influence
Where does primary succession begin?
in a lifeless area (like a volcanic mountain)
What are the first things to inhabit a lifeless area?
autotrophs and prokaryotes (moss and lichen then colonize it)
What inhabits a lifeless area after autotrophs and prokaryotes?
shrubs, grass, trees, etc
What succession occurs from existing community? What species grows
first in this succession?
secondary succession; herbacious species
What are the three key processes of secondary succession?
early arrivals may facilitate later species by changing the environment
early species may inhabit the establishment of later species
early species "exist" with later species but do not hinder
/ help their colonization
What returns nitrogen to the atmosphere as a gas?
What sends nitrogen back down to producers?