*Organism - form of life, an animal, plant, fungus, protist or
*Population - group of individuals of the same species living
in a specific geographical area and reproducing
*Community (ecological) - different populations of organisms
interacting in a shared environment
*Ecosystem - a system composed of organisms and nonliving
components for an environment
*Ecology - study of the relationships between organisms and
their interactions with the environment
*Abiotic factor - a term that describes a nonliving factor in
*Biotic factor - a term that describes a living or once-living
organism in an ecosystem
*Consumer (ecological) - organism that obtains energy by
feeding on other organisms or their remains
*Decomposer - an organism that obtains nutrients by consuming
dead and decaying organic matter which allows nutrients to be
accessible to other organisms
Autotroph - an organism that can synthesize its food from
inorganic substances using heat or light as a source of energy
Carnivore - an organism that derives its energy and nutrient
requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal
tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
Detritivore - an organism that feeds on detritus (�trash�,
�dead things�, organic or inorganic matter); a saprophage
Ecology - is the scientific analysis and study of interactions
among organisms and their environment
Ecosystem - an interacting group of living organisms in an
Herbivore - animals that eat plants
Heterotroph - an organism which requires an external supply of
energy in the form of food because it cannot make its own
Omnivore - An animal which is able to consume both plants (like
a herbivore) and meat (like a carnivore).
Producer (ecological) = an organism that uses a primary energy
source to conduct photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
Biomass - is the mass of living biological organisms in a given
area or ecosystem at a given time.
*Food chain - a simplified path illustrating the passing of
potential energy (food) from one organism to another organism
*Food web - a complex arrangement of interrelated food chains
illustrating the flow of energy between interdependent
Keystone species - a species that has a disproportionately
large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.
Primary producer - organisms that make their own food from
sunlight and/or chemical energy from deep sea vents; are the base of
every food chain; these organisms are called autotrophs.
*Energy pyramid - a model that illustrates the biomass
productivity at multiple trophic levels in a given ecosystem.
an individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form.
a particular section, group, or type of people or animals living in
an area or country.
or synecology is the study of the interactions between species in
communities on many spatial and temporal scales,
including the distribution, structure, abundance, demography, and
interactions between coexisting populations.
a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
a nonliving condition or thing, as climate or habitat, that
influences or affects an ecosystem and the organisms in it:
Abiotic factors can determine which species of
organisms will survive in a given environment.
A biotic factor is any living component that affects
the population of another organism, or the environment. This includes
animals that consume the organism, and the living food that the
Consumers are organisms of an ecological food chain
which receive energy by consuming other organisms. These organisms are
formally referred to as heterotrophs, which include animals, bacteria
and fungi. Such organisms may consume by various means, including
predation, parasitization, and biodegradation.
Decomposers are organisms that break down dead or
decaying organisms, and in doing so, they carry out the natural
process of decomposition. Like herbivores and predators,
decomposers are heterotrophic,
meaning that they use organic substrates to get their
energy, carbon and nutrients for growth and development.
an organism that is able to form nutritional organic substances from
simple inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide.