CH 28 Reproductive system Flashcards

What are the functions of the human reproductive system, and what
organs are part of it?

To produce, store, nourish and transfer Gametes
Organs=Gonads, Ducts, Glands,organs that secrete fluid, and
External Genitalia

What is the trajectory of the spermatozoa through the reproductive organs?

Epididymis--> Deferent Ductus--> Ejaculatory Duct--> Penile Urethra

Define Cryptorchidism

One r both testis have not descending to the scrotum by birth
(correlated with Cancer)

What is the spermatic cord?

A bundle of nerves, blood vessels, and ducts connecting testicles to
the abdominal cavity

What are the 4 anatomical structures located within the Spermatic Cord?

Ductus Deferns, Blood vessels, lymph nodes, and nerves serving the testis.

What is an Inguinal Hernia?

A Protrusion of the intestines into the inguinal Canal

Anatomically what is the Raphe?

The split or external boundary between the chamber of the scrotum

What is the function of the Dartos
Cremaster Muscles?

Dartos muscle works with Cremastric muscle to elevate or descend
balls to keep temp stable
Cremaster Muscle contracts during sexual arousal or change in
temperature, scrotum tenses, pulls balls closer to body, and promotes sperm

Define Tunica Albugenia

DCT rich in collagen fibers that surround testis

What is the anatomical function of the Septae?

Internal projections of tunica Albuginea that divides testis into 250 lobules

Lobules are structural composed of_____.

Seminiferious Tubule

Anatomically define the Rete Testis?


What is the anatomical location of the Efferent Ducts?

Connecting with the Rete Testis

Define penis?

External organ of Copulation

Define glans penis?

Expanded distal portion of the penis that surrounds external urethral
meatus (the head)

What two muscles make up the Penis?

1) Corpora Cavernosa
2) Corpus Spongiosum

Anatomically where are the Preputial glands and what do they Secrete?

Located in the Penile Foreskin, the secrete waxy SMEGMA

What are the 3 functions of the Epididymis?

1) monitors and adjust composition of fluid
2) Acts as a recoiling center for damaged Spermatozoa ]
3) Site for storing and maturation of sperm

Define Capacitation?

Steps to make Spermatozoa become motile and fully functional

What is the function of the Ductus Deference in reference to sperm movement?

It is a structure that carries sperm from the epididymis to the Urethra

List the 3 parts of the Male Urethra

1) Prostatic
3) Penile Region

What is the job of the Seminal vesicles in reference to secretion?

Produces a secretion that contains higher concentrations of Fructose
Prostaglandins, and Fibrinogen

What is the job of the Prostate Gland in reference to secretion?

Produces prostatic fluid, slightly acidic solution that helps 20-30%
of Semen volume

Anatomically where are the Bulbourethral glands and what do they Secrete?


List the 3 structures that make up the Spermatozoon

Head Acrosomal Cap, Neck, and Tail

What is the function of the Interstitial cells especially in
reference to its production?

Responsible for production of Androgens (Testosterone being the most important)

Name the 3 integrated processes of Spermatogenesis.

Mitosis, Meiosis I and II , Spermiogensis

Where does sperm production occur?

In the Stem cell known as Spermatogonia

In reference to sperm development, what is the function of the spermatogonia?
= Divide by mitosis to produce daughter cells some of which
differentiate into primary spermatocytes.

Divided by Mitosis to produce daughter cells some of which
differentiate into primary spermatocytes

What are the Spermatocytes in reference to Meiosis?

The developing sperm cell that begins the process of Meiosis and
becomes spermatids at the end of Meiosis

What is the end result of Miosis? (or what is the final product) in
the male?

It is the final product of Spermatids

What is the end result of Spermiogenesis?

A single sperm called Spermatozoon is produced

What is Spermatozoon?

A mature Spermatid

Define Spermiation
=Process by which mature spermatids are released from Sertoli
cells into seminiferous tubule prior to passageway to Epididymis.

Process by which mature spermatids are released from Sertoli cells
int somniferous tubule prior to passageway to Epididymis.

What are the functions of the Sustentacular cells especially in
reference to its secretion?

Secretes Abdrogen- binding proteins it also produces ABP (binds to
testosterone); secretes inhibits

Understand the process of Synapsis and Crossing over during Meiosis.

Process of synapses is the mom and dad�s chromosomes coming together
Process of crossing over is to increase Genetic variation among offspring

For each primary spermatocyte that enters meiosis, four __ are produced.


What hormone stimulates interstitial cells, and what do they secrete?

The hormone LH stimulates Interstitial cells and they secrete Testosterone

List some of the functions of Testosterone

It develops male reproductive tissue such as testis and prostate,
promotes sexual characteristics like muscle, bone mass and hair growth

Define Broad ligament
= Extensive mesentery that encloses ovaries, uterine tubes and
uterus like a blanket

Extensive Mesentery that encloses ovaries, uterine tubes, and uterus
like a blanket

provides the development of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) and
Prostate Cancer

What is the Role of DHT

Primary androgen secreted by Zona Recticularis of adrenal cortex and
converts to testosterone or estrogen

What is the role of DHEA

What are the 3 functions of ovaries

Produces Oocytes Secretes estrogen Secretes

Understand egg production in reference to quantity from fetal to
birth to adulthood

7 million eggs are produced by 5 months prior to birth
1.5-2 million eggs are in the female ovaries at birth
400 thousand eggs are in the female ovaries by puberty

Meiosis I is suspended in ____until Puberty.

The Ovaries

Meiosis II is suspended in ____unless fertilization occurs.


What is a Primordial Follicle?

An ovarian follicle consisting of the ovum enclosed in a single layer
of cells

What is a Primordial Follicle?

? An ovarian follicle consisting of the ovum enclosed in a single
layer of cells

Do you know anatomically where the Zona Pellucida is?

Outer wall of Oocyte

Do you know anatomically what the Theca and Granulosa Cells together produce?


What secretes the follicular fluid, or liquor folliculi?

Granulosa Cells

What is the Corona Radiata?

? Granulosa Cells that drift free within the Antrum

What is the role of the Corpus Luteum and Albicans?

? Corpus Luteum= to prepare uterus for pregnancy by maturation of the
uterus lining
Albicans= Invade nonfunctional Corpus Luteum producing a scar tissue

What is the function of the uterine tubes?

? to transport a secondary oocyte for final maturations and fertilization
is the structure that transport the ovum to the

What are the 3 segments that make the Uterine tube?

Isthmus Ampulla Infundibulum

Within the Uterine Tube, understand fertilization location and time
it takes the fertilized egg to reach the Uterus for implantation

fertilization is taken place in the upper 1/3 of the Fallopian tube
.it takes 12-24 hours

What is the function of the uterus?

Organ that provides mechanical protection, nutritional support, and
waste removal for the developing embryo and fetus.

List the 3 Suspensory ligaments of the Uterus

Uterosacral Round Lateral

Anatomically understand the location of the round ligament?

extends from the lateral margins of the uterus and extend to through
the inguinal canal to the base of the external genitalia

Define cervix

Inferior portion of the Uterus that projects into the vagina

List the 3 parts of the Cervix.

1) Cervical Canal
2) Internal OS
3) Cervical OS

List the 3 layers of the Uterus and which ones undergoes cyclical changes.

1) Myometrium
2) Endometrium --> undergoes Cyclical changes
3) Perimetrium

Define Myometrium

The muscular layer of the Uterus

What is the function of LH and the ovarian cycle?

LH= Triggers ovulation and development of Corpus Luteum
Ovarian Cycle= Estrogen is produced by Theca Interna and Follicular cells

What is the function of follicle stimulating hormone in reference to
the ovarian cycle?

responsible for primordial follicles to maturate into Primary follicles

Define menstrual cycle and the average length of the uterine cycle in days.

a repeating series of changes in the structure of the endometrium

List the 3 phases of the uterine cycle?

1) Menseso
2) The proliferative phase (Follicular Phase
3) The secretory phase (Luteal Phase)

What occurs during menses?

? The old functional layer is sloughed

What occurs during secretory phase of the menstrual cycle?

The endometrial glands enlarge and accelerate their rates of secretion




Painful menstruation


The cycles continue until age 45-55, the last uterine cycle No more
ovarian follicles remaining

Primary Amenorrhea


Define Vagina

An elastic muscular tube extending between the vestibule and cervix,
a space bound by the female external genitalia

What epithelium lines the Vagina?

non keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

What is the Hymen?

? An elastic epithelial fold that partially or completely blocks the
entrance to the vagina before the initial sexual intercourse

What is the use of the Paraurethral and the Greater Vestibular Glands?

a large amount of lubricating fluid (filtered blood plasma) can be
secreted from this gland when stimulated from inside the vagina(for
example during intercourse

Define Vestibule

A central space within the female external genitalia bounded by the
labia Minora

Define Labia Majora

Prominent fleshy folds of skin that encircle and partially conceal
the labia minora and adjacent vestibular structure.

Define clitoris.

small, rounded tissue projection. contains a mass of erectile tissue
located at the anterior margin of the Labia Minora

Define Areola.

? Generally dark, reddish-brown pigmented skin that surrounding each nipple

What hormone initiates the Follicular Phase?


List some Estrogen Functions.

Stimulates bone and muscle growth,
Maintains female sex characteristics,
Affecting CNS activity,
Maintains functional accessory reproductive glands and organs,
repair and growth of endometrium

What is the main role of LH during Ovarian Cycle?

? Triggers ovulation

What is the main hormone secreted by the Corpus Luteum during the
Luteal or Secretory Phase?


The declines in ___ ___ and ____ levels that accompany the
degeneration of the corpus Luteum result in menses.

progesteron, Estrogen

What does Emission begin with?

with the peristaltic contractions of the ampulla

Define ejaculation.

? Occurs as powerful, rhythmic contractions of the Ischiocavernosus
and Bulbocavernosus muscle

What happens to the production of GnR H, FSH, And LH after Menopause?

? Reduction of Uterus and breast, Thinning of Urethral and Vaginal
Epithelial, Hot flashes, Thinning of hair, increased facial hair,
Development of osteoporosis, and heart disease

What happens to levels of LH and FSH during the male climacteric?