Reproductive System Flashcards


primary sex organs
Male: testes
Female: ovaries


sex cells produced by gonads
Males: sperm
Female: egg

Sex hormones

steroid hormone
Male: androgen
Female: estrogen & progesterone


first cell of a new individual; when sperm and egg fuse to form
fertilized egg


sac of skin that hangs outside the root of the penis; allow testes to
be 3 degrees celsius lower than normal body temp.

Midline septum

divides the scrotum


Testes (plural) Testis ( singular); surrounded by Outer and Inner tunics

Outer tunic

2-layered tunica vaginalis

Inner tunic

Tunica albuginea

Seminiferous tubule

tightly coiled, sperm factories


Immature sperm cells enter the epidemic and stored until ejaculation;
if stored too long epithelial cells phagocytize them


conveys both urine and semen (different times)

3 portions of Urethra

Prostatic urethra, intermediate part, spongy urethra

Accessory glands of male

produce seminal fluid which is the liquid part of semen

Seminal vesicles

produce 70% of seminal fluid; secretion is alkaline


secretion is milky white

Bulbourethral glands

secretion of thick clear mucus that neutralizes urine remaining in urethra


Seminal fluid protects sperm form acidic environment from vagina


foreskin; removed w/ circumcision

Sperm travel

seminiferous tubules- epididymis- vas deferens- exits through urethra


testis is covered by tunica albuginea

Anatomy of Female

vagina permits menstrual flows and birth canal.


thin fold of mucous membrane; covers vaginal opening


glands lubricate distal end of vagina

Uterus layers

Endometrium, Myometrium, Serosa


Functional layer- sloughed off at menstruation
Basal layer- retained and regenerated functional layer


enlarged during pregnancy and push fetus out of uterus

Mammary glands

glandular alveoli produces milk


chromosomes cut in half


meiosis combined w/ maturation of sperm and egg

Homologous chromosomes

egg and sperm chromosomes that carry genre for same traits

Menstrual Cycle

Menstrual phases, proliferative state, secretory phase

menstrual phases

sloughing off thick layer of lining of the uterus

Proliferative stage

estrogen causes endometrium to repair; ovulation occurs @ end

Secretory phase

gland increate to secrete nutrients to sustain an embryo


loss of estrogen; occurs at 45-55 yrs of age