What was the soul focus of Nomads?
What were 2 examples of this?
Satisfy their most basic needs
Shelter and food
What is 2 things the nomads did not have?
What kind of tools were mostly used during the Paleolithic period?
Who lived during this period?
What were 3 major developments during the Paleolithic period?
Ability to control and use fire
Make simple tools using stones
What were foraging societies clans of?
Why did they travel a lot?
Hunter gather clans
Depending on the climate and availability of plants and animals
What are 4 examples that could eliminate Foraging society's?
What was 1 thing Foraging society's could not do?
Could not store food long term
Did they build permanent shelters in Foraging societies?
How many personal belongings in these clans?
How were pastoral societies characterized?
What were 2 areas they would settle?
Why would they stay in 1 of these areas?
The domestication of animals
Mountainous areas and areas with no rain fall
To support forms of rain fall
What scale of agriculture did pastoral societies use?
What was their main food supply?
What are 2 examples?
Why did they do these products?
Easier to store/ produce than meat
What is 1 way pastorals societies were different than those before them?
Who had few rights?
Egalitarian: people deserve more rights
What was the social status based on in pastorals societies?
The size of their herd
What are 2 things that are similar about pastorals societies and
Few personal possessions
Did not settle down in towns
What is 1 thing that is different about pastorals societies and
P: had domesticated as opposed to hunting for animals
What is 1 thing pastorals societies started to experiment with?
Why did they do this?
What did it lead to?
Cultivation of plants
Needed a more dependable food supply
What was the span of years that nomadic lifestyles became agriculture
and city lifestyles?
8000 BCE to 3000 BCE
What does Neolithic mean?
What was another name for the Neolithic revolution?
During the agriculture revolution what size of societies did people
When did full scale socities start?
Small independent groups
What are 2 reasons people could stay in the same place at the same
time during the Neolithic revolution?
What 2 things did they need to stay?
What did people already know?
Knowing how to cultivate plants
Had a constant supply of food
Good soil & good source of water
How to domesticate animals & use of simple tools
What are 3 reasons staying in 1 place changed things?
Added to sense of unity
Sustaining of cultural traditions
Property in terms of ownership
What was an important consequence of Agriculture?
Explain a little more?
A food surplus
Each person can get really good at doing a job and not having
to worry about where there next meal is coming from
What 3 things emerged as a result of Agriculture?
What did this do to the society?
Kept things orderly
What happened as a result of irrigation?
What did this lead to?
What happened as result of new agriculture techniques?
Lands that could not be farmed now could be farmed
Growth and complexity
More growth and complexity
Specialization of what is key?
If others can farm what are 4 other things other people can do?
What are 3 ways that land changed?
Why were roads built?
Creating farm land that had not previously existed
Built to link towns
Why were stones cut?
To build large buildings and monuments
What did people start to use animals for, besides for food and clothing?
What is 1 reason people could increase their farm land?
Direct source of labor
No longer had to turn soil by hand
What was 1 popular stone?
What was stone used for during this time?
What was pottery used for?
What were 5 things that were invented in early civilizations?
What was the most significant advancement of the Neolithic Era?
What did it help advance?
Knowledge of how to use metals
When you combine copper and tin what do you get?
What was the later part of the Neolithc Era known as?
The Bronze Age
Where were the greatest early civilizations located?
What were 2 reasons they started there?
Regular supply of water
Means of transportation
What is a way civilization is described?
Large area of land with cultures
What did many early civilizations consist of?
What were 4 dominant civilizations?
Loose city states
What were the two rivers separating Mesopotamia?
What was the larger area of Mesopotamia known as?
What body of water does this area spread too?
Tigris and Euphrates
What was bad about the Tigris and Euphrates?
What 2 things did people learn to build because of this?
After they started moving uphill what started to emerge?
Its flooding was unpredictable
Canals and dikes
Large city states
What was Sumer?
What were the 3 major city states of Sumer?
1st major civilization
What was a new thing that was established in Sumer?
What was it?
What were 4 ways they used it?
How did it spread?
A way of writing
Set laws, treaties, social customs, religion
What is 1 thing that enhanced trade routes?
What is 1 other thing Sumerians developed?
What was the units of math?
What 2 ways did they use math for?
Twelve month calendar
Units of sixty
To survey the land
To develop arches and columns
What religion were Sumerians?
How many Gods did they worship?
What did each city state have?
What did Sumerians build to appease their Gods?
Their own God that they only worshiped
When the Sumerian city started to decline what city rose to dominance?
What 1st thing did they invent?
What did they use to invent it?
Code of Laws
Who overran the city of Akkad?
What was the Kings name?
What did his code deal with?
What is it distinguished between?
Who did the laws apply to?
Babylon, in Mesopotamia
Major and Minor offenses
Who did Babylon fall too?
Who dominated the region?
What was often used in weapons?
Who rebuilt Babylon as a showplace for agriculture and culture?
How was information passed?
Along Trade routes
What developed into a major world force?
What were 2 very large developments?
What was often not lost even if cities were captured?
What would conquering places do?
Code of Hammurabi and Iron
Heritage, religions, laws, customs, and technologies
Adapted customs and technologies
What river did Egypt develop along?
What size of town did Egyptians live in?
What was different about Egypt's river and Mesopotamia?
Could predict when it would flood
What were the three major civilizations in Europe?
When did the Egyptians civilizations reach it height?
Before the Old kingdom who was the river valley under rule of?
What 3 efforts did this man lead?
Who watched over the buildings of pyramids?
To manage flood water damage, Drainage systems, irrigation
What was the Egyptians writing system?
What did this lead to the creation of?
Fairly reliable calendar
What did the Egyptians become dependent on?
What were 2 luxuriates?
What religion were the Egyptians?
What was their focus on?
What did this lead to the invention of?
Life after death
Who was the first female ruler in history?
When did she rule?
What did she expand?
What was the women rights in Egypt similar to?
The Napoleonic Code
What was the Egyptian social structure?
Merchants and artisans
Who owned all the property in the kingdom?
What form of government was this similar to?
Who occupied Egypt during its decline?
Who absorbed Egypt into its empire?
Where was the Indus valley built?
What did it have to its north and west?
What did the Khyber pass do?
Banks of the river
A way for merchants to travel
What happened to every civilization?
Whats the problem with larger civilizations?
Invaders came in
It could not defend all of its walls
What were 2 major cities in the Indus River Valley?
What did these 2 cities have?
What kind of government in the Indus Valley have?
Who was the ruler of Indus Valley?
What religion were the people in the Indus Valley?
What did the Indus Valley have that was very good?
Who took over after the Indus Valley crumbled?
What were the Aryans?
What seas were the Aryans near?
What advanced thing did they have?
Black and Caspian
What is 1 important thing the Aryans did?
What did they believe in?
What religion were they?
What would this later become?
Established religious beliefs in India
What was the Aryans social structure combined with?
What were the 3 original castes?
What would eventually moved to the top? What is another name for them?
Why was it moved to the top?
The Hinduism caste system
Warrior, priests, peasants
They were believed to be closer to the Gods
What 2 things happened as the caste system advanced?
Sub castes were added to the 4 main castes
Mobility was no longer allowed
Where did Shang China develop?
What body of water was it near?
How was it similar to other early civilizations?
Hwang Ho river valley
Was centered on agriculture and and trade
What was Shang's military like?
What did they build?
What did they use?
Who did Shang trade with?
What did they call their civilization?
Why did they call themselves this?
All Under Heaven
They were so isolated
What 2 things did the Shang develop?
What was very important in Shang China?
What kind of structure was this?
The extended family
Who were the Shang ousted by?
What did this man establish?
What dynasty was it similar to because of its traditions and customs?
Was it the longest dynasty?
What did the Zhou Dynasty believe in?
Explain a little bit
Mandate of Heaven
The heavens would grant power as long as the rulers were wise and just
What did the Zhou Dynasty develop?
What was it similar to?
Who was the entire ruler of the empire?
Who controlled the smaller regions?
Europe during the middle ages
What did the Zhou Dynasty have within its government?
What ended the Zhou Dynasty?
Fights within feudal kingdoms
What bodies of water was west Africa near?
What language did they carry with them?
What knowledge did they carry with them?
What were their travels often referred to?
What did their culture become known as?
Niger and Benue
What kind of challenges did the Bantu face?
What was 1 area that was very bad?
What was the first city of the Bantu?
What does it suggest it might have had?
Well organized society
What are 4 reasons people migrated?
A place to live
Avoid natural disasters
What 2 early civilizations existed for Americans?
Why were the Olmec and Chavin different from other society's?
They did not develop along river valleys
What let nomads become city builders?
What was the first medal used?
What was the earliest public works?
Tools allowing them to manipulate the land
What were 4 architectural monuments?
What were 2 reasons structures often used for?
To assert authority of leaders
Keep the civilization in working order
How important was the role of women in hunter gather cultures?
Where would the women gather from?
What did they form the basis of?
What was the basis of the community?
Not very important
What 5 other jobs could women do?