AP Test Technological/Environmental Changes Flashcards

What was the soul focus of Nomads?
What were 2 examples of this?

Satisfy their most basic needs
Shelter and food

What is 2 things the nomads did not have?

Advanced tools

What kind of tools were mostly used during the Paleolithic period?
Who lived during this period?

Stone tools

What were 3 major developments during the Paleolithic period?

Spoken language
Ability to control and use fire
Make simple tools using stones

What were foraging societies clans of?
Why did they travel a lot?

Hunter gather clans
Depending on the climate and availability of plants and animals

What are 4 examples that could eliminate Foraging society's?

Climate changes
Natural disasters

What was 1 thing Foraging society's could not do?

Could not store food long term

Did they build permanent shelters in Foraging societies?
How many personal belongings in these clans?


How were pastoral societies characterized?
What were 2 areas they would settle?
Why would they stay in 1 of these areas?

The domestication of animals
Mountainous areas and areas with no rain fall
To support forms of rain fall

What scale of agriculture did pastoral societies use?
What was their main food supply?
What are 2 examples?
Why did they do these products?

Animal products
Easier to store/ produce than meat

What is 1 way pastorals societies were different than those before them?
Who had few rights?

Egalitarian: people deserve more rights

What was the social status based on in pastorals societies?

The size of their herd

What are 2 things that are similar about pastorals societies and
Foraging societies?

Few personal possessions
Did not settle down in towns

What is 1 thing that is different about pastorals societies and
Foraging societies?

P: had domesticated as opposed to hunting for animals

What is 1 thing pastorals societies started to experiment with?
Why did they do this?
What did it lead to?

Cultivation of plants
Needed a more dependable food supply
Neolithic revolution

What was the span of years that nomadic lifestyles became agriculture
and city lifestyles?

8000 BCE to 3000 BCE

What does Neolithic mean?
What was another name for the Neolithic revolution?

New Stone
Agriculture revolution

During the agriculture revolution what size of societies did people
live in?
When did full scale socities start?

Small independent groups
3000 BCE

What are 2 reasons people could stay in the same place at the same
time during the Neolithic revolution?
What 2 things did they need to stay?
What did people already know?

Knowing how to cultivate plants
Had a constant supply of food
Good soil & good source of water
How to domesticate animals & use of simple tools

What are 3 reasons staying in 1 place changed things?

Added to sense of unity
Sustaining of cultural traditions
Property in terms of ownership

What was an important consequence of Agriculture?
Explain a little more?

A food surplus
Each person can get really good at doing a job and not having
to worry about where there next meal is coming from

What 3 things emerged as a result of Agriculture?
What did this do to the society?

Organized economies
Governmental structures
Religious organization
Kept things orderly

What happened as a result of irrigation?
What did this lead to?
What happened as result of new agriculture techniques?

Lands that could not be farmed now could be farmed
Growth and complexity
More growth and complexity

Specialization of what is key?
If others can farm what are 4 other things other people can do?

Build tools
Invent tools
Create tools
Do art

What are 3 ways that land changed?
Why were roads built?

Diverting Water
Clearing Land
Creating farm land that had not previously existed
Built to link towns

Why were stones cut?

To build large buildings and monuments

What did people start to use animals for, besides for food and clothing?
What is 1 reason people could increase their farm land?

Direct source of labor
No longer had to turn soil by hand

What was 1 popular stone?
What was stone used for during this time?
What was pottery used for?

Farming tools

What were 5 things that were invented in early civilizations?

Complex clothing

What was the most significant advancement of the Neolithic Era?
What did it help advance?

Knowledge of how to use metals

When you combine copper and tin what do you get?
What was the later part of the Neolithc Era known as?

The Bronze Age

Where were the greatest early civilizations located?
What were 2 reasons they started there?

River Valleys
Regular supply of water
Means of transportation

What is a way civilization is described?

Large area of land with cultures

What did many early civilizations consist of?
What were 4 dominant civilizations?

Loose city states

What were the two rivers separating Mesopotamia?
What was the larger area of Mesopotamia known as?
What body of water does this area spread too?

Tigris and Euphrates
Fertile Crescent

What was bad about the Tigris and Euphrates?
What 2 things did people learn to build because of this?
After they started moving uphill what started to emerge?

Its flooding was unpredictable
Canals and dikes
Large city states

What was Sumer?
What were the 3 major city states of Sumer?

1st major civilization

What was a new thing that was established in Sumer?
What was it?
What were 4 ways they used it?
How did it spread?

A way of writing
Set laws, treaties, social customs, religion
Trade Routes

What is 1 thing that enhanced trade routes?
What is 1 other thing Sumerians developed?
What was the units of math?
What 2 ways did they use math for?

The wheel
Twelve month calendar
Units of sixty
To survey the land
To develop arches and columns

What religion were Sumerians?
How many Gods did they worship?
What did each city state have?
What did Sumerians build to appease their Gods?

Their own God that they only worshiped

When the Sumerian city started to decline what city rose to dominance?
What 1st thing did they invent?
What did they use to invent it?

Code of Laws

Who overran the city of Akkad?
What was the Kings name?
What did his code deal with?
What is it distinguished between?
Who did the laws apply to?

Babylon, in Mesopotamia
Daily Life
Major and Minor offenses
Almost everyone

Who did Babylon fall too?
Who dominated the region?
What was often used in weapons?


Who rebuilt Babylon as a showplace for agriculture and culture?

King Nebuchanezzar

How was information passed?

Along Trade routes

What developed into a major world force?

Persian Empire

What were 2 very large developments?
What was often not lost even if cities were captured?
What would conquering places do?

Code of Hammurabi and Iron
Heritage, religions, laws, customs, and technologies
Adapted customs and technologies

What river did Egypt develop along?
What size of town did Egyptians live in?
What was different about Egypt's river and Mesopotamia?

The Nile
Could predict when it would flood

What were the three major civilizations in Europe?
When did the Egyptians civilizations reach it height?


Before the Old kingdom who was the river valley under rule of?
What 3 efforts did this man lead?
Who watched over the buildings of pyramids?

King Menes
To manage flood water damage, Drainage systems, irrigation

What was the Egyptians writing system?
What did this lead to the creation of?

Fairly reliable calendar

What did the Egyptians become dependent on?
What were 2 luxuriates?


What religion were the Egyptians?
What was their focus on?
What did this lead to the invention of?

Life after death

Who was the first female ruler in history?
When did she rule?
What did she expand?

Queen Hatshepsut
New Kingdom
Trade expeditions

What was the women rights in Egypt similar to?

The Napoleonic Code

What was the Egyptian social structure?

Merchants and artisans

Who owned all the property in the kingdom?
What form of government was this similar to?

The pharaoh

Who occupied Egypt during its decline?
Who absorbed Egypt into its empire?


Where was the Indus valley built?
What did it have to its north and west?
What did the Khyber pass do?

Banks of the river
A way for merchants to travel

What happened to every civilization?
Whats the problem with larger civilizations?

Invaders came in
It could not defend all of its walls

What were 2 major cities in the Indus River Valley?
What did these 2 cities have?

Water systems

What kind of government in the Indus Valley have?
Who was the ruler of Indus Valley?
What religion were the people in the Indus Valley?

Strong Central

What did the Indus Valley have that was very good?
Who took over after the Indus Valley crumbled?


What were the Aryans?
What seas were the Aryans near?
What advanced thing did they have?

Black and Caspian

What is 1 important thing the Aryans did?
What did they believe in?
What religion were they?
What would this later become?

Established religious beliefs in India

What was the Aryans social structure combined with?
What were the 3 original castes?
What would eventually moved to the top? What is another name for them?
Why was it moved to the top?

The Hinduism caste system
Warrior, priests, peasants
Priests, Brahmans
They were believed to be closer to the Gods

What 2 things happened as the caste system advanced?

Sub castes were added to the 4 main castes
Mobility was no longer allowed

Where did Shang China develop?
What body of water was it near?
How was it similar to other early civilizations?

Hwang Ho river valley
Yellow River
Was centered on agriculture and and trade

What was Shang's military like?
What did they build?
What did they use?


Who did Shang trade with?
What did they call their civilization?
Why did they call themselves this?

All Under Heaven
They were so isolated

What 2 things did the Shang develop?

Decimal system
Accurate Calendar

What was very important in Shang China?
What kind of structure was this?

The extended family

Who were the Shang ousted by?
What did this man establish?
What dynasty was it similar to because of its traditions and customs?
Was it the longest dynasty?

Wu Wang
Zhou Dynasty

What did the Zhou Dynasty believe in?
Explain a little bit

Mandate of Heaven
The heavens would grant power as long as the rulers were wise and just

What did the Zhou Dynasty develop?
What was it similar to?
Who was the entire ruler of the empire?
Who controlled the smaller regions?

Feudal System
Europe during the middle ages
The king

What did the Zhou Dynasty have within its government?
What ended the Zhou Dynasty?

Fights within feudal kingdoms

What bodies of water was west Africa near?
What language did they carry with them?
What knowledge did they carry with them?
What were their travels often referred to?
What did their culture become known as?

Niger and Benue
Bantu migration

What kind of challenges did the Bantu face?
What was 1 area that was very bad?

Climate change
Sahara desert

What was the first city of the Bantu?
What does it suggest it might have had?

Well organized society

What are 4 reasons people migrated?

Find food
A place to live
Climate changes
Avoid natural disasters

What 2 early civilizations existed for Americans?


Why were the Olmec and Chavin different from other society's?

They did not develop along river valleys

What let nomads become city builders?
What was the first medal used?
What was the earliest public works?

Tools allowing them to manipulate the land

What were 4 architectural monuments?


What were 2 reasons structures often used for?

To assert authority of leaders
Keep the civilization in working order

How important was the role of women in hunter gather cultures?
Where would the women gather from?
What did they form the basis of?
What was the basis of the community?

Not very important
The ground

What 5 other jobs could women do?