Micro module 4 Flashcards

Among the virulence factors produced by staphylococcus aureus are
hemolysin, coagulase, hyaluronidase, and enterotoxin. Which of these
factors contributes to the ability of S. aureus to invade the body?


What feature of the skin creates a physical barrier to microbial invasion?

The outer layers are dead cells, lightly linked together,man dare
frequently shed

A small amount of antigen is injected under the skin of a patient.
After 30 minutes there is no apparent change at the injection site,
but 36 hours later the patient reports that the area is red and
swollen. This type of response is due to

Type lV hypersensitivity

Which complement protein is the key to activating the alternative
pathway of complement activation?


Which of the following molecules would contain T-independent antigens?


The syndrome known as AIDS is characterized by

One or more opportunistic diseases and the presence of HIV

A person comes to the clinic complaining of aching joints and
muscles, swelling, and a decrease in urine output. The clinicians also
notes a rash on the skin of the face. A probable diagnosis is

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Toxoid vaccines are commonly used when?

Immunity to the toxins produced by a pathogen is sufficient to
prevent disease

First line of defense may be described as?

Intact skin, mucous membranes, sebum,tears and so forth

What type of immunity is produced by the body when a person contracts
a disease?

Naturally acquired active immunity

After an initial exposure to a pathogen, the phenomenon of ______
produces a faster, more effective response to subsequent exposures.

Immunological memory

Phagocytes are brought to a site of infection by?

Detection of chemokines and complement factor gradients

The close contact between newborns and family members allows them to
become _____ with microbes that become established as their macrobiota.


Which of the following pairing of microbe and disease was disproven
using Koch's postulates?

Haemophilus influenza and the flu

Which of the following pairs of lymphocyte and glycoprotein is mismatched?


An agricultural worker experiences difficulty breathing, which
becomes progressively worse. Tests show inflammation and damage of the
lung tissue, but IgE antibodies and granulocytes are in the normal
ranges. With which disorder of the immune system are these signs and
symptoms consistent?

Type III ( immune complex-mediated) hypersensitivity

Which of the following statements regarding the demonstration of the
etiology of disease is FALSE?

The suspect agent must be the only potential pathogen present in
disease cases

Variolation was first used?

To immunize the Chinese against smallpox

A new virus is discovered that causes cells to clump together. Which
of the following types of assay would be useful for diagnosing
infection with this virus?

Viral hemagglutination

Which of the following types of epidemiology applies Koch's
postulates to study a disease?


A person is exposed to desert air containing fungus spores and
develops valley fever as a result. Valley fever is an example of a
______ disease.


Which of the following combinations of pathogen and virulence factor
is correct?

Streptococcus pyogenes and protein M

Viral neutralization testing is based on the fact that

Viruses introduced into appropriate cell cultures have a cytopathic effect

Mucous membranes are quite thin and fragile. How can such delicate
tissue provide defense against microbial invaders?

The mucus physically traps microbes, contains a variety of
antimicrobial chemicals, and is shed constantly, along with the
outermost layer of cells.

Primary immunodeficiency diseases

Are detectable close to birth

The Fc portion of an antibody is formed by

Portions of both of the heavy chains only

Which of the following iron-binding proteins is NOT part of the
body's iron storage and transport system?


How is the development of autoimmunity normally prevented?

Colonal deletion of T cells, lack of necessary cytokine signals, and
regulatory T cell suppression prevent activation of autoreactive T cells.

Serologic tests for diagnoses of disease may detect

Either antigens or antibodies specific for certain antigens

The components of the second line of defense against microbes may be
characterized as

Responders to invasion

Anti- human antibodies (specific for human IgG antibodies) with
fluorescent molecules covalently attached are used for

Both indirect ELISA and indirect fluorescent antibody tests

Graft rejection can be reduced by

Preventing T cell proliferation

Leukocytes migrate to a site of infection in response to


Which of the following components of antigen processing is mismatched?

Endogenous antigen: MHC ll

Which of the following statements regarding inactivated vaccine is correct?

It is safer than attenuated vaccines

Protection from infection known as species resistance is a result of

Both the absence of necessary receptors and lack of suitable
environment in the body.

Which of the following statements is TRUE of eosinophils?

They secrete toxins onto the surface of helminth parasites

Vomiting is a common sign of food poisoning. The corresponding
symptoms would be


The name systemic lupus erythematosus refers in part to the
distinctive rash resulting from

Antibody-antigen complexes accumulating in the skin

Which of the following is NOT an example of symbiosis?

Microbes passing across the placenta to the fetus

Phagocytic cells in the epidermis known as _____ contribute to its
ability to prevent microbial invasion.

Dendritic cells

Which of the following characteristics is shared by the skin and
mucus membranes?

They are both constantly shedding and replacing cells

The taxonomic approach to classifying disease is based on the

Type of microbe that causes the disease

Type 1 helper T(Th1) cells produce ______ to stimulate increased phagocytosis,

Gamma interferon (INF-y)

A young woman comes into the clinic complaining of itchy, red skin
and swelling on her arms and legs. She had not been in any parks of
wooded areas recently, but she had been shopping. A blood sample
reveals elevated levels of granulocytes. What treatment is the
physician likely to prescribe at this point?


Symptoms are

Subjective characteristics of a decease that only the patient can feel

Which of the following statements concerning rheumatoid arthritis
(ra) is True?

Accumulations of antibody complexes lead to inflammation in and
destruction of the joints

Which of the following is the key difference in the roles of the
classical and alternative pathways of the complement system?

The range of microbes types that can be targeted

What is the function of NK cells?

They identify and poison virus- infected cells

The incidence of tuberculosis in the year 2000 in the United States
was 12.43/100,000 cases. This means

There were 12.43 new cases of tuberculosis for every 100,000 people
in the United States in the year 2000

An infectious disease researchers isolates the pathogen responsible
for an emerging disease. The microbe is grown in the lab for many
generations. A preparation of the laboratory- grown microbe is treated
with ionizing radiation and then tested for its potential as a
vaccine. What type of vaccine is this?

Inactivated whole

During a visit to a hospital, a child receives the oral polio
vaccine. He then returns to his distant village. Sometime later a
polio outbreak occurs in the village, but the child and his siblings,
who had not had the vaccine, are spread. What is the explanation for
this event?

Contact immunity

Fever is beneficial during viral infections because the higher temperature?

Increases the effectiveness of interferons

Tissue samples can be tested for pathogen using _______ assays.

Direct fluorescent antibody

How is hemolytic disease of the newborn prevented?

Administering anti-Rh IgG late in pregnancy and after pregnancy ends

When immunization levels in a population are high, ________ provides
protection from infection for at-risk persons who cannot be immunized.

Herd immunity

Several days after a walk in the woods, Cheryl develops a localized
rash. It is not painful and soon fades so she thinks nothing of it.
Several months later she experiences increasing fatigue, low-grade
fever, and a pain in the joints. These symptoms persist for months
before she seeks medical attention. This description is most
consistent with an ______ infection.


Which of the following is transmitted by the parental route?

Yellow fever

Which of the following is the best definition of "microbial antagonism"?

The presence of normal macrobiota that protect the body by competing
with pathogens in a variety of ways to prevent pathogens from invading
the body

Diseases that are induced by modern medical procedures are referred
to as _______ infections.


Treatment with high doses of antibiotics may lead to which types of
health care associated infection?

Endogenous infection

Titration is a serological procedure that

Determines the amount of an antibody in the blood

Organisms that are resident microbiota are best described as

Microorganisms that remain with the person throughout life