Ch 25 Fluid and Electrolytes Flashcards

H2O is ___% of total body weight


___ of H2O is found in the ___ and __ in the ECF

2/3 found on ICF and 1/3 in the ECF

The main extracellular fluid (ECF) are found in the:
Interstitial Fluid and ____ ____ these are the main ones but it
also consist of other minor Extracellular body fluids like ___ and Lymph

Blood Plasma, CSF

The intracellular fluid (ICF) fluid within our cells is found in the
cells of the body called ___ _____

The Cytosol

What are the principal ions in the ECF?

Na+ ( the main ion)
and HCO3 (Bicarbonate)

What are the principal ions in the ICF?

K+ ( the main cation)
and PO4 (phosphate ions)
plus negatively charged Proteins

Composition of body fluids respond to changes in the ___ NOT in the ___


Water moves back and fourth freely within the ___ Compartment


When water is lost, but electrolytes are retained, _____ moves water
from the ___ into the ___ until balance is restored

Osmosis, ICF, ECF

What are the two important effects ADH has when the increase is released?

1) it stimulates water conservation by the kidneys, reducing urinary
water losses (therefore a person exposed to days with no water they
will have high ADH levels)
2) Stimulates the Thirst center, promoting the intake of fluids

The higher the ______ concentration of aldosterone, the more
efficiently the kidneys conserve or retain __+

Plasma, Na+

Aldosterone is ______ in response to rising __+

Secreted, K+

Dehydration is associated with´┐Ż

1) Severe Thirst
2) Fall in plasma volume
3) Blood Pressure

Rate of ______ uptake across the digestive tract is directly
proportional to ____ ____

Sodium, Dietary intake

If large amounts of salt are consumed(like a meal high in salt) the
plasma ___+ concentrations will rise temporarily. Therefore, resulting
in a temporary increase in ____ ______

Na+, blood volume

Aldosterone levels:
Aldosterone regulates the amount of ______ secreted by the _____
it also promotes the _____ retention in the kidneys

Potassium, kidney, Sodium

When Aldosterone increases __+ ____ as well as K+ _____, this excess
of potassium is ______ from the body by the _____

Na+ Reabsorbs,secretion, eliminated, Kidneys

Calcium Balance:
Calcium homeostasis primarily reflects an interplay between the
reserves in the ____, the rate of ______ across the digestive tract,
and the rate of ______ at the kidneys

bones, absorption, excretion

pH Control:
The pH of the ECF remains between ____ and ____

7.35 and 7.45

If Plasma levels fall below 7.35 (academia), ______ results


If plasma levels rise above 7.45 (Alkalemia), ______ results


The ____is the most important factor affecting the __ in body tissues

PCO2, pH

When the pH of body fluids beings to fall (more acidic) ____ will
bind a ______ ion at the ____ portion (-NH2)

Proteins, Hydrogen, Amino

The primary role of The Carbonic Acid (CO2) - Bicarbonate Buffer
System is to prevent __ changes caused by ____ ____ and fixed acids in
the ___

pH, Organic acids, ECF

Increasing or decreasing the the rate of _________ alters the __ by
lowering or raising the ____

Respiration, pH, PCO2

When the PCO2 rises, the __ ____
(Making it more Acidic)

pH falls

When the ____ ____, pH rises
(More Alkaline)

PCO2 falls

What is the usual cause of Respiratory Acidosis?

Hypoventilation (abnormal low respiratory rate)

Respiratory Acidosis;
The pH will be _____ because of the cause of ______

Lower, because of hypoventilation

Respiratory Acidosis;
Chronic Respiratory Acidosis develops when normal respiratory
function has been compromised
Examples of conditions fostering Chronic Respiratory acidosis include?..

Emphysema, Congestive Heart Failure, and Pneumonia

Problems with Respiratory Alkalosis are rare, but they primarily involve?

lose of
Consciousness(for ex because of high altitude)
Patients on mechanical Respirators
and individuals with brain stem injuries

What are the 3 major causes of Metabolic Acidosis?

1) Production of Fixed Acids OR Organic Acids
2) Impaired ability to excrete at the Kidneys (person suffering
with inflammation of the kidneys will show these symptoms)
3) Severe Bicarbonate Loss, Chronic Diarrhea

A person suffering from chronic diabetes will exhibit signs of ____ ____

Metabolic Acidosis

What is an example of Metabolic Alkalosis?
also a person consuming large amounts of antacids to settle an upset
stomach are at risk of of developing _____ _____

A person with prolong Vomiting
Metabolic Alkalosis