< 3 months or as long as it takes for normal healing to
occur sudden subsides with tx
persistant 3-6 months hard to treat; secondary to
changes in the CNS (neuropathic pn) usually cannot
completely get rid of but can get to a tolerable level
originates from skeletal muscles, ligaments and joints
originates from organs and visceral organs
occurs when visceral nerve fibers synapse at a level in the
spinal cord close to fibers that supply subcutaneous tissue in the
body EX: pn associated with cholecystitis, often
referred to the back and scapular areas
usually results from damage to peripheral or CNS nerve fibers
occurs in areas of a body part that has been removed
(surgically or traumatically). can also occur in paralyzed
limbs following spinal cord injury
substances that binds to a receptor and causes a partial
response that is not as strong as that caused by an agonist
substance that binds to a receptor and causes a response
drug that binds to a receptor and prevents (blocks) a
medications that relieve pain without causing loss of
a chronic neurobiologic disease whose development is influence
by genetic psychosocial and environmental factors
adjuvant analgesic drugs
drugs that are added for combined therapy with a primary drug
and may have additive or independent analgesic properties or
theory that uses the analogy of a gate to describe how impulses
from damaged tissue resented by the brain (proposed by melzack and
the wall 1965)
Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
large chemically diverse group of drugs that are analgesic and
also possess anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity
synthetic drugs that bind to opiate receptors to relieve
normal physiological condition in which a larger dose is
required to maintain same level of analgesia abrupt d/c of
rx could result in withdraw sx
What is the name of the drug that reverse the effects of
What medications are opioid agonists?
codeine, hydrocodone (binds to pn receptor in
brain,blocks connection: reduces pn sensation)
what opioid medications are serve agonists?
morphine, hydromorphone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, methadone
What opioid medications are agonist-antagonists?
pentazocine (Talwin), nubain bind to pn receptors,
what are so major adverse effects of opioids?
respiratory depression hypotension
What is a nursing consideration for the administration of
DO NOT GIVE if RR is <12
action: inhibits prostaglandin synthesis
indications: mild to moderate pain
Contraindications: allergy, sever liver disease,
glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) (increased risk
What are the adverse effects of acetaminophen?
What is the total maximum daily dose for acetaminophen?
What is the antidote for acetaminophen?
what are some nursing implications for acetaminophen?
education alcohol consumption and interaction
generic name: Ultram central acting analegis
contraindications: seizures, tricyclic
antidepressants, SSRIs, MOIs, neuroleptic, alcohol
side effects: CNS changes, h/a, nausea,
constipation, respiratory depression, seizures
What are side effects of topical anesthetic such as
cardiac dysrhythmias, skin irritation
localized protective response stimulated by tissue
injury serves to destroy, dilute, wall off injured
tissue s/s: hot, inflammation, swelling, redness
endogenous compounds and pathways
What are some specific NSAID medications?
ASA acetic acid derivatives: indomethacin (indocin),
ketorolac (toradol) propionic acid derivatives: IBU
(Motrin, Advil) Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: celecoxib or
COX-2 inhibitors (Celebrex)