ch24 Flashcards

What is nutrients

It a substances in food the body needs for growth and repair, maintence

What is kilocalories and what does it measures

the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of
water to 1 degree celcius
It measures the energy of food

This has two other nutrients that are required, nut only in small amounts

This is a micronutrients

What are the two types of micronutrients

Vitamins and minerals
h20 is required

this is a nutrient that must be eaten because body cannot synthesize
these from other nutrients

This is Essential nutrients

How many nutrients are considered essentials

45-50 essential nutrients

What is the nonessential nutrients

They are vital to life if not emough is avaialbe, liver can usually
convert another nutrients into one needed

What are the 3 macro type of nutrients


What is micro nutrients

vitamins and minerals

What is vitamins

organic molecules coenzymes

vitamin d

made in skin

vitamin B and K

synth by intestinal bacteria

Vitamin A

converted from beta-carotene

Structure (bone) and ion balance (action potential)


organic componds that are crucial in helping body use nutrients
functions as coenenzyme


Water-soluble vitamins

B complex and C
B12 absorption

What are vitamins not stored in the body , any not used within 1 hour
are excreted

Water-soluble vitamins

What are fat-soluble vitmans

Vitamins A, D, E, K

Which vitamins are not stored in the body

vitamin k

This sum of all biochemcial reactions inside a cell involving nutrients

This metabolism

Synthesis of large molecules from small ones ex, synthesis of
proteins from amino acids


hydrolysis of complex structures to simpler ones (ex. breakdown of
proteins into amino acids


catabolic breakdown of food fuels whereby energy from food is
captured to form ATP in cells

Cellular respiration

goal of cellular respiration is to trap chemical energy in what


Where is energy stored and broken down later

Glycogen and fats

enzymes shifts high-energy phosphate groups of ATP to other molecules


involve the gain of oxygen or loss of hydrogen atoms and their electron

oxidation reactions

what is oxidation -reductions

redox reaction

oxidized substances lose electron and energy
reduced substances gain electrons and energy


this reaction are catalyzed by enzymes that usually require a B
vitamin coenzyme

redox reaction

what are two important coenzymes act as hydrogen


What are two mechanism are used to make ATP from capture energy that
is liberated during cellular respiration

substrate-level phosphorylation
oxidative phosphorlation

the high energy phosphate groups are directly transferred from
phosphorylated substrates to ADP. THis occurs twice in glycolysis
andonce in KReb cycles

This is substrate-level phosphorylation

What are the necessary enzyme in cystol


What enzyme in the Kreb cycle

the mitochondria

what produces the most ATP

the oxidative phosphorylation

this is a couple movments of substances across the membranes to
chemical reaction

chemiosmotic process

As hydrogen flow backs through _______ membrane channel protein,
energy from flow is used to phosphorylate ADP

ATP synthase

This fuel most used by cells to make ATP


________ and ______ rely entirely on glucose

Neurons and RBCs

A complete glucose catabolism requires three pathways. What are the
three pathways

Glycolysis Kreb cycle and electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation

what a name for glycolysis
how many step are included for oxidation of glucose

glycolytic pathway
10 step pathway

what are three major phases of oxidation of glucose

sugar activation
sugar cleavage
sugar oxidation and ATP formation