In epidemiology, a ___________ study occurs after disease outbreak to
determine the characteristics of ill people such as age, sex, personal
habit, location, etc.
___________ are substances that are toxic to white blood cells.
Normal flora referred to as _____________ are only present for short
periods of time, now and then.
___________ refers to bacteria reproducing in the blood.
The _________ __________ Organization (WHO) determines which diseases
are possible to eradicate from the face of Earth;
It provides guidance, funding, and education.
A _________ infection is a local infection that spreads;
Examples include rabies, hepatitis A, and tetanus.
A ________ is a continual source of infectious agents;
Soil, water/food, diseased animals, and other humans are all examples.
A _________ disease is one that can be inactive for long periods of time;
Example include viral diseases such as shingle and cold sores.
A _____ epidemic is one where the number of cases continues to rise
as infected people continue to infect others.
A capsule helps a pathogen escape ____________ unless opsonization
A respiratory ___________ produced by sneezing, coughing, and talking
(especially in crowds) can easily spread respiratory diseases over
distances less than 1 meter.
A _________ _________ epidemic occurs due to a single exposure of a
group of people.
_________ are projections of microbes that match host receptors at
the correct portal of entry.
Disease that are not spread from one person to another (such as
botulism or tetanus) are called _______________.
During pathogenesis, __________ occurs as the microorganisms multiple
to establish themselves on or within the host.
Normal flora referred to as ____________ are virtually always present.
The National _____ ________ ________ _________ and prevention,
located in Atlanta, Georgia, publishes the MMWR;
50+ diseases are continuously "monitored" to detect any
Centers for Disease Control
_______ refers to the total number of existing cases (old and new) of
a disease in a given population, usually expressed as a percentages;
a "snapshot" to help assess the overall impact of a disease.
__________ rate is calculated as the number of cases in a given time
divided by the population at risk;
contagious diseases such as influenza typically have a high rate
because each infected individual transmits the disease to several others.
It is also the first ":M" in MMWR
The __________ refers to the partner being harmed by a parasite.
His "postulates" were experimental steps to establish the
microbe that causes a disease.
______ refers to identification of a disease by evaluating signs,
symptoms, and lab results
Following transmission to a new host during pathogenesis (the
production of disease process), there must be ____________ to the
target host tissue in order for colonization to occur, pili, and
complementary surface molecules may both help.
The presence of a _________ is common in pathogenic bacteria
It inhibits phagocytosis because it is slippery and slimy so the
phagocyte can't get a good grip.
_________ are subjective changes in the body during
They include pain and malaise (a feeling of general discomfort)
A _________ infection is asymptomatic and may go unnoticed,
especially in children.
__________ is an exoenzyme that breaks down fibrin clots, allowing
bacteria to spread.
The ___________ period of a disease occurs when the disease is most
acute and death is most likely;
Marked by fever, chills, enlarged lymph nodes, elevated white blood
cell count, etc.
The first step for pathogenesis to occur is ___________ to a
This may occur form the environment (soil, water) from humans or
other animals by direct or indirect means.
A __________ disease develops slowly and symptoms persist for a long duration;
Mononucleosis, TB, leprosy, and syphilis are examples.
A __________ is a host with a pathogen that does not cause disease in
the host, but can be transmitted to others where it could cause disease.
___________ Diseases can be transmitted from on person to another;
Measles, colds, and influenza are examples.
__________ are objective, measurable changes in the body during a disease.
They include fever, edema, lesions, rash, pus, and inflammation.
___________ refers to the process of disease development;
steps include transmission, adherence, invasion, colonization,
damage to host, exit from host, and survival long enough for
transmission to the next host.
___________ is an exoenzyme that breaks down H2O2 produced by
phagocytes into water and oxygen, preventing digestion of the engulfed bacterium
___________ spread of disease is a direct form of transmission that
only occurs across the placenta (syphilis or rubella) or from mother
to newborn (Herpes)
Prevalence refers to the total number of existing cases (old &
new) of a disease in a given population, usually expressed as a ___________
a snapshot to help assess the overall impact of a disease
A _____________ infection is when the microorganisms are restricted
to a small area
Example: Wart or Boil
_____________ refers to a general feeling of being unwell
_________ refers to a form of symbiosis where both partners benefit
from the relationship
E-coli normal flora in humans provide vitamin K some of the B
vitamins, and make helpful bacteriocins (chemicals to fight off
Once host defenses have been overcome and disease has developed,
a ________ period follows incubation in some diseases
It is marked by early mild signs/symptoms such as aches and malaise.
The exoenzyme ________ activates prothrombin in blood plasma;
Prothrombin then combines with fibrinogen, forming a fibrin clot for
the pathogen to hide;
This helps prevent phagocytosis
___________ are toxic soluble proteins secreted by some bacteria;
Examples are the cause of botulism and tetanus
The _______ period of disease (one to a few days in duration) occurs
when signs and symptoms subside;
This is also when the patient is most susceptible to
____________ __________ was an Irish immigrant cook in New York in
the early 1900s;
It is estimated that she infected over 1000 people and became
perhaps the best-known carrier of all time.
The _________ infection is one that spreads throughout the body via
the blood and lymphatic system;
Measles, tooth abscesses, appendicitis, chickenpox, and syphilis are examples.
Once host defenses have been overcome, and disease is developing, the
_________ period occurs before the first signs and symptoms appear;
This period may be short (10-14 days with typhoid fever) or long (10
years with AIDS)
An __________ organism is usually nonpathogenic, but it can become
pathogenic under certain circumstances such as when there is a
reduction of normal flora, or if it gets into a different part of the body.
A _______ refers to a group signs and symptoms that typically occur
with a particular disease often helpful for diagnosis.
_______ refers to the form of symbiosis where one partner benefits at
the expense of the other (called the host), causing harm and possibly
A ________ vector is part of the pathogen's life cycle.
An _________ disease is constantly present in a population, the
common cold is an example.
An __________ occurs when a lot of people get a disease in a short
period of time.
All types of __________ (emotional, nutritional, physical) increase
production of immunosuppressive corticosteroids
______ is the study of the frequency and distribution of disease in
order to identify risk factors and set guidelines for the prevention
and control of certain diseases.
_________ spread of a disease is a direct form of transmission from
person to person.
__________ are poisonous cell components that are released when the
microbe dies/breaks apart;
Includes various lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in Gram-negative cell walls.
During disease recovery, the _________ period follows the decline period;
This is the period of time necessary to fully regain strength.
____________ refers to a form of symbiosis where one partner benefits
while the other is neither helped nor harmed;
Staphylococcus epidermidis lives off of skin secretions and
__________ rate is the percentage of people who die from a disease;
AIDS, Ebola, and plague have high rates
It is also the second "M" in MMWR
a worldwide epidemic is call a ___________;
Influenza and AIDS are examples.
A potentially fatal condition called _________ __________ can occur
when endotoxins are released from Gram-negative bacteria as they break apart.
_________ _________ refers to microorganisms that normally line in/on
the body without producing harm;
They may be resident (always there) or transient (only present for a
The exoenzyme _________ is also nicknamed "spreading factor";
It breaks down the "glue" of connective tissue, enhancing
spread through the body.
During pathogenesis, adherence to the target tissues leads to
The higher the number of microbes present, the more likely this will occur.
In epidemiology, once the occurrence of an outbreak has been fully
described, an ____________ study is done to identify specific
risk factors that result in high frequencies of disease;
Involves a comparative approach where people
with the disease are compared to similar people
without the disease.
Cockroaches and house flies are not involved in the parasite's life
cycle, but are merely carriers;
There are referred to as __________ disease vectors.
____________ refers to the presence of toxins in the blood.
A _________ disease is a communicable disease that is easily spread;
chickenpox and measles are examples.
__________ refers to disease cases in a specific time period compared
with the general healthy population;
Regardless of the population size, this is expressed as #
cases/100,000 people for easier comparison.
It indicates both the rate and risk of infection.
___________ are exotoxins that lyse red blood cells.
A _____________ disease primarily of other animals that can also
Swine flue, rabies, RMSF, anthrax, and bubonic plague are examples.
__________ disease transmission involves transfer of pathogens from
one person to another;
This is typical of fragile pathogens that cannot survive expended
periods of time in the environment (such as Treponema pallidum
and Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
____________ are inanimate objects that may act as an indirect
transmitter of pathogens;
Used tissues, unsanitized eating utensils, toys, and contaminated
needles are examples.
An ________________ disease develops fast but for a short duration;
Influenza is an example.