A&P last exam Flashcards

lecture 17


What are the components of the urinary system? Can you label
picture on the right in Figure 1717-1?

kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra

Are the kidneys retroperitoneal? Can you appreciate that fact
in figures 17-3 AND 20.6?


Figure 17-7 introduces terms used in describing the kidneys. Of
these terms, �renal pelvis� and �hilum� are most important.


Understand that kidneys are grossly divided into cortex, and
medulla (Fig 17.9)


Be able to label: pyramid, major and minor calyx and renal column as
in Figure 17-9b and define a renal lobe as in figure 17-10


Define the nephron and read concepts accompanying figures 17-12
to 17-14. Understand words that are highlighted in brown

the urine-producing functional structures of the kidney span the
cotex and medulla

Understand the blood supply to the kidneys in figures 17-16 to
17-19 and understand highlighted words. What is the difference
between cortical and juxtaglomerular nephrons? (Figure 17-19).

kideys receive blood from the renal arteries, left and right, which
branch directly from the abdominal aorta
-despite their relatively size the kidneys receive app. 20 percent
of the cardiac output
-interlobar arteries run in the renal columns between renal pyramids
-arcuate arteries run through the boundry of the cortex and medulla

The physical relationship between podocytes and capillaries in the
renal corpuscle should be examined (17-21 and 17-22). The message on
the two slides is that filtration in the glomeruli involves passage
through many layers.


What do ureters do? Where do they enter the bladder? What three
orifices form the trigone? (Figures 17-23 and 17-24)

the ureters exit the kidney at the hilum area, extend to the urinary
bladder, and enter the urinary bladder on the posterior/inferior side

Understand the following terms: detrusor muscles (17-25),
internal (17-26) and external sphincters (17-27) of the bladder

destrusor muscle-the muscular layer of the urinary bladder
internal-entrance to the urethra is a smooth muscle, involuntary control
external-skeletal muscle, voluntary control

What is the function of the urethra? Is it longer or shorter in
the female? 17-29 and 17-30


lecture 18


Definition of enzymes and how they work

enzymes are protein substances that increase the rate of chemical
reactions without being consumed in the reaction
enzymes lower the activation energy needed to start reactions

Examples of organic and inorganic cofactors

inorganic-metal ions-zinc and iron-sulfur clusters
organic-coenzymes-flavin molecules, prosthetic groups-biotin

Definition of metabolism


Why does metabolism proceed in discrete steps?

multistep enzyme pathway releases energy in smaller amounts that can
be used by the cell

What is catabolism? Provide an example

degrade molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats to create
smaller end products such as h2o, co2, and NH3

What is anabolism? Provide an example

small simple molecules are built into larger and more complex
molecules such as lipids, polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids

Provide an example of a method of metabolic regulation


Define reduction

is the gain of electrons h=gain of hydrogen, loss of oxygen by a
molecule, atom, or ion

Define oxidation

carbon atoms in biochemistry can exist in 5 oxidation states-alkane,
alcohol, aldehyde, carboxylic acid

lecture 19


Give an example of a metabolic reaction that is sequestered in mitochondria


What is free energy change? What is the free energy change for
hydrolysis of ATP?

a measure of the chemical energy available from a reaction

What three compounds or groups mediate the release of energy?

(1) Acetyl CoA(2) Nucleoside triphosphates(e.g. ATP) (3) Reduced
coenzymes(NADH, FADH2, QH2)

The hydrolysis of ATP yields what?

free energy, ADP, and the inorganic phosphate ion (Pi)

What are the products of the complete oxidation of glucose in the
presence of oxygen?


What are the sites of glycolysis, the TCA cycle and the electron
transport chain?


For each glucose molecule, How many molecules of ATP and NADH are
produced in A) Glycolysis B) Conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA C)
TCA cycle


For each glucose molecule, How many molecules of FADH2 are
produced in the TCA


For each glucose molecule, how many ATPs are produced in the electron
transport chain.


lecture 20


What molecules make up a fatty acid (aka triacyglycerol or triglyceride)?


Does a molecule of fatty acid carry more or less energy than a
molecule of glucose? Why?

fatty acids carry more energy per carbon because they are more reduced

What emulsifies fat in the duodenum?

Emulsification is the process whereby large globules of
fat are broken down into smaller globules and made
water soluble. One of the primary ingredients in the bile is
cholesterol. At the same time that bile is secreted by the gall
bladder, pancreatic juices are secreted by the
pancreas into the duodenum.

What enzyme breaks down fat in the duodenum?


Chylomicrons from small intestinal cells enter lymphatic structures
known as what? (From here chylomicrons enter the blood circulation and
eventually reach tissue via blood capillaries


What enzyme breaks down triglycerides into free fatty acids and
glycerol for absorption by cells of target tissue such as muscles and
adipose tissue?


Where in the cell is glycerol broken down to ATP? What coenzyme is
generated in this step?


Where in the cell does fatty acid oxidation occur?


Long chain fatty acids are oxidized to yield acetyl residues in
the for of what molecule?

?The Acetyl groups are oxidized to CO2via the TCA cycle

The ������produced in line 9 is oxidized to CO2 via which cycle?


NADH and FADH2 generated in steps 9 and 10 then enter which
chain to generate ATP via oxidative phosporylation?


As an illustration of the advantage of oxidation of
triglycerides, how many ATPs are generated by the breakdown of
palmitic acid