Workbook for Textbook of Diagnostic Sonography: Ch 16 Retroperitoneum Workbook Exercise 4,5 &6 Flashcards

Parietal; posterior

The retroperitoneal space is the area between the posterior portion
of the ____, and the ____ abdominal wall muscles.

Anterior pararenal; perirenal; posterior pararenal

The retroperitoneal space is subdivided into 3 spaces: the ____ ____
space, the ____ space, and the ____ ____ space.


The _____ space surrounds the kidney, adrenal, and perirenal fat.

Anterior pararenal

The ______ space includes the duodenum, pancrease, and ascending and
transverse colon.

Posterior pararenal

The ______ space includes the iliopsoas muscle, ureter, and branches
of the inferior vena cava and their lymphatics

Superior; medial

The right adrenal is more ____ to the kidney, whereas the left
adrenal is more _____ to the kidney

Anterior; posterior

The right renal artery crosses ____ to the crus and _____ to the
inferior vena cava at the level of the right kidney.


The _____ muscle, the fascia of which merges with the posterior
transversalis fascia, makes up the medial border of the posterior space.

Androgens; estrogens

The male sex hormone are _____, and the female sex hormones are ____.


Hypofunction of the adrenal cortex in humans is called ______ disease.

Mineral corticoids: Glucocorticoids; Sex Hormones

The steroids secreted by the adrenal cortex fall into the following
three main categories: ____, ______, and _______.

Mineral corticoids

regulate electrolyte metabolism.


The principal mineralocorticoid is ________


______ play a principal role in carbohydrate metabolism.

Cortisone; Hydrocortisone

The primary glucocorticoids are _____ and ____.


Adrenal tumor in women can promote secondary _______ characteristics


The adrenal cortex is controlled by ____ hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary


Epinephrine and norepinephrine are amines, sometimes referred to as
______, that elevate the blood pressure.

Stress; Asphyxia: Sepicernia

Adrenal hemorrhages are more common in neonates who experiences a
traumatic delivery that included ____, _____ and ______

Hypertension: Headaches; Palpitations

The clinical symptoms of pheochromocytoma include intermittent _____,
severe ______, heart ________, and excess perspiration.


A _____ is a walled-off collection of extravasated urine that
develops spontaneously after trauma, surgery, or a subacute or chronic
urinary obstruction.