Workbook for Textbook of Diagnostic Sonography: GI Ch 13 Workbook Exercise 5,6 &7 Flashcards

Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine

List the sequential parts of the digestive system

Cardiac orfice

The lower end of the esophagus is a circular muscle that acts as a
sphincter, constricting the tube so that the entrance to the stomach,
at the ____ ____, is generally closed. This helps to prevent gastric
acid from moving up into the esophagus.

Antrum; pyloric; pyloric

The pylorus is further subdivided into the ____, the ____ canal, and
the ____ sphincter.

Superior; descending; transverse; ascending

The duodenum is subdivided into four segments: _____, _____, ____,
and _____.


The duodenal bulb is peritoneal, supported by the hepatoduodenal
ligament, and passes ______ to the common bile duct, gastroduodenal
arterty, common hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, and head of the pancreas.

Ampulla of vater

The common bile duct joins the pancreatic duct to enter the______

Thyroid; subciavian; thoracic; gastric; phrenic

The arteries that supply the esophagus include the inferior____branch
of the ___ artery that supplies the upper esophagus; the descending
______aorta that supplies the midesophagus; and the ____ branch of the
celiac axis and the left inferior ___ artery of the abdominal aorta
that supplies the lower end of the esophagus.


The _____outlines the small intestine and contains the superior
mesenteric vessels, nerves, lymphatic glands, and fat between its two layers


The nutrients are transported to the liver after they are absorbed by
the ___; the liver processes and stores the nutrients.


The three layers of smooth muscle in the wall enable the stomach to
mash and churn food and move it along with _____

Hydrochloric: enzymes

Gastric glands secrete gastric juice containing _____acid and ____.


The hormone____, which is released by the stomach mucosa, stimulates
gastric acid secretion.

Cholecystokinin: secretion

Gastrointestinal hormones include____ and ____


___within the large intestine devour the chime and in turn produce
vitamins that can be absorbed and used by the body.


The most common laboratory data the sonographer may come across in a
patient with gastrointestinal disease relate to the presence of ___ in
the stool.


As a result of chronic blood loss, ___ may be present.


The ____ junction is seen on the sagittal scan to the left of the
midline as a bull's-eye or target shaped structure anterior to the
aorta, posterior to the left lobe of the liver, and inferior to the hemidiaphragm.


The gastric ____ can be seen as a target shape in the midline.

Keyboard sign

The sonographer usually cannot see the small bowel with ultrasound:
the valvulae conniventes may be seen as linear echo densities spaced 3
to 5 mm apart. This is called the ____ and can be seen in the duodenum
and jejunum.

McBurney's point

The appendix is located on the abdominal wall under ______


Movable intraluminal masses of congealed ingested materials that are
seen on upper gastrointestinal radiographs are known as gastric____


A gastric___ is an outgrowth of tissue from the wall.


The most common tumor of the stomach is the ______

Acute Appendicitis

________ is the result of luminal obstruction and inflammation,
leading to ischemia of the vermiform appendix


The normal appendix can occasionally be visualized with gradual
______ on sonography.


The ultrasound pattern of acute appendicitis is characterized by a(n)
_________ appearance of the appendix in transverse view


A(n) _______ designates gross enlargement of the appendix from
accumulation of mucoid substance within the lumen

Chrohns Diseases

_______ is regional enteritis, a recurrent granulomatous inflammatory
disease that affects the terminal ileum, colon, or both at any level