Chem Ch. 10 Acids and Bases Flashcards

Acids formed from anions with names that end in ide
Ex. Halogens

Prefix: hydro
ending: ic

Hydrochloric acid

If the anion ends in ite (less oxygen)

-ous acid

If the anion ends in -ate (more oxygen)

-ic acid

Autoionization of water

H2O (l) + H2O (l) ------->
H3O+ (aq) + OH- (aq)

Water dissociation constant Kw

Kw = [H3O+] [OH-]
= 10-14 @ 25 C (298K)


pH= -log[H+]


pOH= -log[OH-]



p value

-log (n x 10-m)= -log(n) - log (10-m)

= m - 0.n

pH=7= neutral is only valid at 25C

Kw like any other equilibrium constant, is dependent only
on temperature.
Isolated changes in concentration, pressure, or volume will not
affect Kw

Strong acids

HCl (Hydrochloric acid)
HBr (Hydrobromic acid)
HI (Hydroiodic acid)
H2SO4 (Sulforic acid)
HNO3 (Nitric acid)
HClO4 (Perchloric acid)

Strong base

NaOH (sodium hydroxide)
KOH (potasium hydroxide)
Soluble hydroxides of Group IA metals

Acid dissociation constant (Ka)
-equilibrium state
-weak acids

Ka= [H3O+] [A-]/ [HA]
The smaller the Ka the weaker the acid= the less it
will dissociate.

Base dissociation constant (Ka)

K b= [B+] [OH-]/ [BOH]
The smaller the Kb the weaker the base = the less it
will dissociate.

What is considered a weak acid

K a is less than 1.0

What is considered a weak base

K b is less than 1.0.


Kw= [H3O+][OH-]= 10-14

Ka, acid x Kb, conj base = Kw= 10-14

Kb, base x Ka, conj acid = Kw= 10-14

Acetic acid


Neutralization reaction

HA(aq) + BOH(aq)-----> BA(s) +
H2O (l)

NH3 is a weak/strong base


Weak bases are often not


Calculating the unknown conc of the titrand through the equation:

Na Va= Nb Vb

Na: acid normality
Va: acid volume
Nb: base normality
Vb: base volume

Sodium acetate: salt of the weak acid acetatic acid


Amonium chloride: salt of the weak base ammonia

NH4 +Cl-

Carbonic acid


Henderson-Hasselbach equation is used to
estimate the pH or pOH of the buffer solution.

pH= pKa + log [A-]/[HA]
pOH= pKb + log [B+]/[BOH]