AEMT Masterlist 2 V8

A young female is found floating face-down in a lake. There were no witnesses to the event. Prior to removing her from the water, you must first:

rotate the pt into a supine position and protect her spine

A young male is wearing lightweight clothing and is standing outside in windy winter weather. He is losing heat to the environment mostly by:

convection

An individual is considered to be hypothermic when his or her core body temperature falls below:

95�F

During your primary assessment of a 33-year-old male with severe hypothermia, you find that he is unresponsive and has agonal breathing. You should:

assess his carotid pulse for 30 to 45 seconds.

Heat cramps are typically the result of prolonged exposure to a hot environment, resulting in:

electrolyte depletion and severe muscle spasms.

How could the mammalian diving reflex protect the hypothermic patient who was submerged in water?

It slows the metabolic rate and decreases the body's oxygen demand

Hyperthermia occurs when:

inadequate thermolysis causes reduced heat loss.

In addition to supplemental oxygen, the MOST appropriate treatment for a nauseated patient with heat exhaustion includes:

20 mL/kg saline boluses and transport.

Initially, following submersion in fresh water, the lungs are not inundated with fluid because:

the larynx spasms and protects the airway

Patients who are struck by lightning rarely sustain full-thickness burns because:

the duration of the lightning strike is short.

Severe, persistent pain caused by a jellyfish sting should be treated by:

immersing the affected area in hot water for 30 minutes.

When treating a diver who complains of severe pain to his joints and abdomen after returning to the surface of the water, you should manage his airway accordingly and position him:

on his left side with his head down.

When treating a patient who is severely hypothermic, unresponsive, and wearing wet clothes, the AEMT should:

avoid placing chemical heat packs anywhere on the body.

Which of the following statements regarding scorpion stings is correct?

With the exception of one particular species of scorpion, most scorpion stings cause severe pain and swelling, but are not dangerous.

Which of the following statements regarding the brown recluse spider is correct?

Its venom is cytotoxic and causes severe local tissue destruction.

While stacking wood on a woodpile, a 60-year-old male experienced immediate, severe pain on the back of his hand. He complains of abdominal pain, nausea, and dizziness. Your assessment reveals that he is conscious and alert, but has an extremely rigid abd

black widow spider bite

You are assessing a 24-year-old male who was bitten by a rattlesnake while hiking in the woods. Which of the following clinical signs would be MOST indicative of envenomation?

Progressive tissue swelling

You are dispatched to a local golf course, where three people were struck by lightning. After ensuring your own safety, you begin triaging the patients. The first patient is conscious and has an apparent closed femur fracture. The second patient is consci

the other patients are less likely to develop cardiac arrest.

You are dispatched to a ski resort for a 21-year-old female with a local cold injury to her hand. Upon making contact with the patient, your MOST immediate action should be to:

move her to a warmer environment

You are treating a 40-year-old female who is experiencing severe heat cramps. You have moved her to a cooler environment, applied oxygen, and are giving her Gatorade to drink. When you reassess her, you find that her condition has not improved. You should

start an IV of normal saline and transport her.

Breath-holding syncope" commonly occurs when a swimmer:

breathes deeply and rapidly before entering the water.

A 19-year-old male who was struck by lightning. He is unresponsive and apneic, but has a pulse. He also has widespread superficial burns. You should:

manually stabilize his head, ventilate him with a bag-mask device, and establish at least one-large bore IV.

A 24-year-old male was pulled from the water following submersion for an unknown length of time. There were no witnesses to the patient's submersion. When you arrive at the scene, you determine that he is in cardiac arrest. Routine management for this pat

subdiaphragmatic thrusts.

A 30-year-old female presents with signs of dehydration, generalized weakness, and cool, clammy skin. She is conscious and alert and has an oral temperature of 101.5�F. This clinical presentation is MOST consistent with:

heat exhaustion

A 40-year-old female, who is conscious and alert with mild hypothermia, should receive active external rewarming. This involves:

wrapping her in blankets and applying heat packs to her groin

A 44-year-old male was bitten by a black widow spider. He is conscious and alert, complains of nausea, and has a tense, painful abdomen. His blood pressure is 150/94 mm Hg, pulse is 110 beats/min and strong, and respirations are 24 breaths/min and unlabor

clean the bite with soap and water, apply ice to the area, and transport.

A 45-year-old hiker was lost in the woods for approximately 24 hours. When he is rescued, you find that he is unresponsive; has profoundly slow respirations; and a weak, irregular pulse. This clinical presentation is MOST suggestive of a core body tempera

80�F to 88�F.

A frostbitten extremity is usually:

hard and waxy.

A frostbitten extremity should never be rewarmed if:

there is a chance that it may refreeze.

A patient with a core body temperature of 85�F would be expected to present with:

profoundly slow respirations

A young female is found floating face-down in a lake. There were no witnesses to the event. Prior to removing her from the water, you must first:

rotate the pt into a supine position and protect her spine

A young male is wearing lightweight clothing and is standing outside in windy winter weather. He is losing heat to the environment mostly by:

convection

An individual is considered to be hypothermic when his or her core body temperature falls below:

95�F

Because heat always travels from a warm object to a cooler one, a person standing in a cold room will lose heat by:

radiation

Compared to classic heatstroke, exertional heatstroke commonly presents with:

moist, pale skin.

During your primary assessment of a 33-year-old male with severe hypothermia, you find that he is unresponsive and has agonal breathing. You should:

assess his carotid pulse for 30 to 45 seconds

Gangrene and subsequent amputation of a frostbitten extremity will MOST likely occur if it:

is rewarmed and then refreezes.

General management for a moderately hypothermic patient with a decreased level of consciousness may include all of the following, EXCEPT:

active internal rewarming.

Heat cramps are typically the result of prolonged exposure to a hot environment, resulting in:

electrolyte depletion and severe muscle spasms.

Heatstroke occurs when the:

body is subjected to more heat than it can remove.

How could the mammalian diving reflex protect the hypothermic patient who was submerged in water?

It slows the metabolic rate and decreases the body's oxygen demand.

Hyperthermia occurs when:

inadequate thermolysis causes reduced heat loss.

In a cold environment, most of a person's body heat is lost:

from the head and neck areas

In addition to causing local tissue destruction, the venom from a pit viper also causes:

spontaneous bleeding due to interference with the blood-clotting mechanisms.

In addition to supplemental oxygen, the MOST appropriate treatment for a nauseated patient with heat exhaustion includes:

20 mL/kg saline boluses and transport.

Initially, following submersion in fresh water, the lungs are not inundated with fluid because:

the larynx spasms and protects the airway.

Internal heat production is called:

thermogenesis

Lethal cardiac dysrhythmias, such as ventricular fibrillation, may occur in the hypothermic patient if he or she:

is rewarmed too quickly.

Mild hypothermia is characterized by:

shivering, tachypnea, and peripheral vascular constriction.

Near-drowning is MOST accurately defined as:

recovery that lasts for at least 24 hours following submersion in water

Palpating for a pulse in a near-drowning victim may be difficult to assess because:

the peripheral vessels are constricted and cardiac output is low

Patients who are struck by lightning rarely sustain full-thickness burns because:

the duration of the lightning strike is short.

Patients with diabetes are especially prone to heat illnesses because:

autonomic neuropathy interferes with vasodilation

Prior to initiating CPR on an apneic, hypothermic patient, you should:

assess the carotid pulse for up to 45 seconds.

Severe, persistent pain caused by a jellyfish sting should be treated by:

immersing the affected area in hot water for 30 minutes.

Shivering, which is a natural response of the body to cold temperatures, serves to:

increase the rate of cellular metabolism.

Shortly after returning to the surface of the water, a scuba diver experiences an acute onset of pleuritic chest pain and difficulty breathing. He is tachycardic and his pulse is irregular. You should suspect:

air embolism

Signs of an impending lightning strike include all of the following, EXCEPT:

sudden tachycardia

The body loses heat to the environment through a process called:

Thermolysis

The signs and symptoms of Lyme disease resulting from a tick bite are MOST commonly confused with:

rheumatoid arthritis

The two MOST effective mechanisms for thermolysis are:

sweating and peripheral vasodilation

Treatment for a patient with a pit viper bite to an extremity and no signs of envenomation includes oxygen, as well as:

covering the area with a sterile dressing, splinting the extremity, and transporting.

When a warm hand touches a cold object, heat passes directly from the body to the colder object. This is an example of:

conduction

When assessing a patient with a heat-related emergency, which of the following clinical signs would indicate thermolytic inadequacy?

Altered mental status

When assessing the skin temperature of a patient with a cold-related emergency, you should feel the skin closest to the core of the body because:

the patient may be hemodynamically stable even if his or her extremities are cold.

When rapidly cooling a semiconscious patient with heatstroke, you must stop the cooling process if the patient:

begins to shiver.

When the core body temperature falls below 95�F, the patient's:

ability to regulate body temperature is lost.

When transporting a moderately hypothermic patient, you must avoid unnecessary bumps in the road. Not doing so may result in:

cardiac arrhythmia

When treating a diver who complains of severe pain to his joints and abdomen after returning to the surface of the water, you should manage his airway accordingly and position him:

on his left side with his head down

When treating a patient who is severely hypothermic, unresponsive, and is wearing wet clothes, the AEMT should:

avoid placing chemical heat packs anywhere on the body.

When treating an unconscious, breathing patient with moderate to severe hypothermia, you must avoid rough handling in order to avoid inducing:

ventricular fibrillation.

Which of the following clinical signs would indicate a core body temperature of between 89�F and 92�F?

bradycardia

Which of the following individuals would be at GREATEST risk for developing hypothermia?

A 68-year-old female with a generalized infection

Which of the following is a physiologic abnormality that occurs as a result of hypothermia?

Abnormal blood clotting

Which of the following patients has signs and symptoms that are MOST indicative of heatstroke?

A 31-year-old male with hot and moist skin, tachycardia, and confusion

Which of the following patients is LEAST prone to a local cold injury?

A 45-year-old male with hypertension

Which of the following statements regarding decompression sickness is MOST correct?

Treatment at a recompression facility is a crucial treatment

Which of the following statements regarding hypothermia is correct?

Decreased thyroid gland function predisposes a person to hypothermia

Which of the following statements regarding scorpion stings is correct?

With the exception of one particular species of scorpion, most scorpion stings cause severe pain and swelling, but are not dangerous.

Which of the following statements regarding the brown recluse spider is correct?

Its venom is cytotoxic and causes severe local tissue destruction.

Which of the following types of medications would increase a person's risk of developing a heat-related illness?

antihistamines

Which of the following would be the LEAST reliable assessment parameter or treatment tool for a patient with significant hypothermia?

Pulse oximetry

While stacking wood on a woodpile, a 60-year-old male experienced immediate, severe pain on the back of his hand. He complains of abdominal pain, nausea, and dizziness. Your assessment reveals that he is conscious and alert, but has an extremely rigid abd

a black widow spider bite

You are assessing a 24-year-old male who was bitten by a rattlesnake while hiking in the woods. Which of the following clinical signs would be MOST indicative of envenomation?

Progressive tissue swelling

You are dispatched to a local golf course, where 3 people were struck by lightning. After ensuring your own safety, you begin triaging the patients. The first patient is conscious and has an apparent closed femur fracture. The second patient is conscious,

the other patients are less likely to develop cardiac arrest.

You are dispatched to a ski resort for a 21-year-old female with a local cold injury to her hand. Upon making contact with the patient, your MOST immediate action should be to:

move her to a warmer environment

You are dispatched to the residence of an 80-year-old female with a possible heat-related emergency. Your assessment reveals that she is semiconscious, has hot and dry skin, and signs of severe dehydration. You should:

move her to a cooler environment

You are treating a 40-year-old female, who is experiencing severe heat cramps. You have moved her to a cooler environment, applied oxygen, and are giving her Gatorade to drink. When you reassess her, you find that her condition has not improved. You shoul

start an IV of normal saline and transport her.

You are treating a 55-year-old male with heatstroke when he suddenly becomes unresponsive and stops breathing. Assessment of his carotid pulse reveals that it is weak and rapid. You should:

continue cooling measures, maintain his airway, ventilate him with a bag-mask device, transport, and request a paramedic intercept

You should assess a patient with systemic hypothermia for local cold injuries to the extremities because:

blood is shunted away from the extremities.

What is the MOST significant drawback to cannulating a scalp vein in a child with a butterfly catheter?

It does not allow for rapid fluid administration.

A 30-year-old male presents with respiratory distress that began within minutes of being exposed to an unknown chemical at an industrial site. When caring for this patient, it is MOST important to remember that:

he must be properly decontaminated first

When collecting potential evidence at the scene of a sexual assault, you should place any items in paper bags, because:

plastic bags may develop condensation and could destroy the evidence.

A 49-year-old female was the victim of a sexual assault. Your assessment reveals that she is conscious and alert and is breathing adequately. There is no gross external bleeding and her vital signs are stable. You should:

discourage her from showering or douching.

Genital warts are caused by infection with:

human papillomavirus

A 4-year-old boy pulled a pot of boiling water from the stovetop. He has superficial and partial-thickness burns to his head, left anterior trunk, and entire left arm. On the basis of the "rule of nines," what percentage of this child's body surface area

30%

Which of the following patients has experienced a critical burn?

A 65-year-old with 18% partial-thickness burns to both upper extremities

Death immediately following a burn is MOST commonly the result of:

toxic chemical inhalation.

Commotio cordis is a condition in which:

immediate cardiac arrest occurs when the chest is impacted during the heart's repolarization period.

Testicular torsion is a/an:

time-sensitive injury and requires rapid transport.

Which of the following describes an injury caused by indirect force?

A fall on an outstretched hand with a fractured wrist and a dislocated elbow

In addition to splinting the injured extremity, appropriate management for a patient with suspected compartment syndrome includes:

keeping the limb at the level of the heart, transporting, and frequently assessing distal pulses.

After applying supplemental oxygen to a patient with blunt abdominal trauma, you should:

obtain a set of baseline vital signs

Kehr sign is defined as:

referred pain to the shoulder following injury to the liver or spleen.

The primary reason for applying gentle longitudinal traction to a severely angulated tibia is to:

facilitate the placement of a standard splint

A 56-year-old male caught the foreskin of his penis in a long segment of the zipper of his pants. He is in extreme pain, his blood pressure is 150/88 mm Hg, his pulse rate is 120 beats/min and strong, and his respirations are 22 breaths/min with adequate

carefully cut the zipper out of the pants, control any bleeding, and transport

Which of the following statements regarding hip dislocations is correct?

Most hip dislocations are caused by posterior displacement of the femoral head.

Palpating for a pulse in a near-drowning victim may be difficult to assess because:

the peripheral vessels are constricted and cardiac output is low

A patient with developing compartment syndrome following a fracture typically complains of or presents with:

tension or pressure in the affected extremity.

Which of the following injuries would pose the LEAST threat to the patient?

Major sprains at a major joint

A severe risk of terrorist attacks is indicated by the color ______ by the Department of Homeland Security Advisory System?

red

When introduced into the body, ricin causes?

pulmonary edema and circulatory failure.

The LEAST harmful form of ionizing radiation is?

Alpha

Exposure to _____ would MOST likely result in immediate respiratory distress?

chlorine

The Centennial Park bombing during the 1996 Summer Olympics is an example of:

domestic terrorism

If the incident command system (ICS) is already established at the scene of a WMD or terrorist attack, the EMT should:

locate the medical staging officer to obtain his or her assignment.

Points of distribution (PODs) are strategically placed facilities where

antidotes, antibiotics, and vaccines are distributed.

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF), such as Ebola, cause the blood to

seep out of the blood vessels and tissues.

An attack on an abortion clinic would MOST likely be carried out by a

single-issue group

To date, the preferred weapons of mass destruction for terrorists have been

explosive weapons

According to the Department of Homeland Security Security Advisory System, the color orange indicates a _______ risk of terrorist attacks.

high

Continual reassessment of the scene at a suspected terrorist or WMD incident is MOST important because

a secondary explosive device may detonate.

All of the following are vesicant agents, EXCEPT

sarin

You are treating a patient who experienced a significant exposure to cyanide. He is semiconscious and is breathing inadequately. The MOST appropriate method of providing assisted ventilations to this patient is to:

use a bag-mask device

Which of the following statements regarding anthrax is correct?

Pulmonary anthrax is the most deadly form

When multiple patients present with an acute onset of difficulty breathing, chest tightness, and hoarseness or stridor, you should be MOST suspicious of exposure to

phosgene or chlorine

You and your partner arrive at the scene of a fire at a large office complex. Witnesses tell you that they heard a loud explosion shortly before the building caught fire. You should

ensure that your ambulance is parked upwind and uphill from the building

Unlike viruses and bacteria, neurotoxins

are not contagious

Initial signs and symptoms associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers include:

headache and sore throat

Which of the following statements regarding the persistency and volatility of a chemical agent is correct?

VX, a highly persistent nerve agent, can remain in the environment for weeks to months.

The skin lesions associated with smallpox:

are identical in there development

At present, the likelihood of a nuclear attack against the United States is very low because:

terrorist nations do not have the ability to deliver a nuclear weapon via missile or bomb

A 52-year-old male presents with a fever of 102.5�F and a severe headache. As you assess him, you note the presence of multiple blisters on his face and chest, which are all identical in shape and size. This patient's clinical presentation is MOST consist

smallpox

Life-long immunity would MOST likely occur after a patient is infected with:

rubella

How do the blood vessels of the skin respond to cold temperatures?

Constriction, which diverts blood away from the skin

A 19-year-old female presents with severe pain to the left lower quadrant of her abdomen. She is restless, tachypneic, and tachycardic. When you inquire about her last menstrual period, she tells you that it was approximately 2 months ago. You should susp

a ruptured ectopic pregnancy

Common hazards associated with a structural fire include all of the following, EXCEPT:

carbon dioxide deficiency

At the scene of an automobile crash, a utility pole has been broken, and power lines are lying across the car. The driver of the car is responsive, but reporting neck pain. You should:

mark off a danger zone around the car and downed lines.

Which of the following general statements regarding infectious diseases is correct?

All contagious diseases are infectious.

While triaging patients at a multiple-casualty incident, you encounter a 40-year-old female with an obvious fracture of her right forearm and multiple abrasions to her face and arms. She is responsive and alert and does not appear to have any airway or br

Provide supportive care and transport the patient

The absence of a pulse and breath sounds are NOT adequate in declaring death in patients who:

were acutely poisoned

You respond to a nursing home's call regarding an older patient who fell. During your assessment, you note injuries that are not consistent with the mechanism described. You should:

transport the patient and report your suspicions.

When assisting with the delivery of a baby, the minimum standard precautions you should take include:

gloves, mask, gown, and eye protection

In the pregnant patient, the secretion of oxytocin causes:

uterine smooth muscle contraction

During an attempted resuscitation of a 9-year-old boy in cardiac arrest, your paramedic partner asks you to prepare epinephrine in a dose of 0.01 mg/kg. The child's mother tells you that he weighs approximately 65 pounds. You have a prefilled syringe of e

3 mL

Which of the following electrolytes is essential for the distribution of water throughout the body?

Sodium

A 50-year-old patient complains of abdominal muscle cramps and spasms of his hands. Which of the following electrolyte disturbances does this patient MOST likely have?

Hypocalcemia

Compared to a 16-gauge catheter, a 22-gauge catheter would be more appropriate for an elderly patient because:

it reduces the risk of fluid extravasation.

Which of the following is the MOST significant complication associated with IV therapy in geriatric patients?

Fluid overloading

When starting an IV on an elderly patient, you should be aware that:

certain medications can create fragile skin and veins.

You respond to a residence where a 5-year-old male has ingested an unknown substance. Upon arrival at the scene, the child's mother tells you that her son swallowed approximately 20 Tylenol capsules. What is the MOST logical way of determining how much th

Ask the mother if she knows the weight of her son.

A 50-year-old female with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea complains of intense thirst and generalized weakness. Her blood pressure is 86/50 mm Hg and her pulse rate is 130 beats/min and thready. Which of the following interventions would NOT be appropriate

Salt-containing solutions by mouth

An apneic 2-year-old child with a heart rate of 110 beats/min is being ventilated with a bag-mask device at a rate of 20 breaths/min. After 2 minutes of ventilations, you note that the child's heart rate is 80 beats/min. You should:

recognize that your ventilations are not adequate.

Abdominal thrusts in a responsive child or adult with a severe upper airway obstruction are performed:

until he or she becomes unresponsive.

When suctioning the airway of a child, you should:

suction for 10 seconds and reassess the child's airway.

What is the correct ratio of compressions to ventilations when performing two-rescuer child CPR?

15:2

A patient is considered to have positive orthostatic vital signs if:

the systolic pressure drops upon standing

The clonic phase of a generalized motor seizure is characterized by

muscle contraction and relaxation occurring in rapid succession

An idiopathic seizure is a seizure

without an identifiable etiology

You are assessing a 62-year-old female who has an automatic implantable cardiac defibrillator (AICD). As you are applying oxygen to her, she becomes unconscious, pulseless, and apneic. You should:

begin CPR and apply the AED as soon as possible.

You are assessing the arm drift of an elderly male with a suspected stroke and note that both of his arms drift toward the ground. You should:

ensure the patient understood your instructions and repeat the test.

When assessing a patient using a pulse oximeter, it is important to remember that:

abnormally bound hemoglobin may produce inaccurate readings

Which of the following scenarios is MOST descriptive of an absence seizure?

A 6-year-old male who is conscious, but will not respond to his mother; symptoms subside spontaneously within a few minutes

You are treating a 2-year-old boy who is experiencing respiratory distress. During your assessment, you note that the child has mild inspiratory stridor, a barking cough, and a low-grade fever. The child is otherwise conscious, is acting appropriate for h

humidified oxygen.

You are dispatched to a local convenience store for a 30-year-old male who is actively seizing. Upon your arrival, the patient is confused and combative. This is indicative of the ___________ phase.

postictal

The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of:

bronchiolitis and pneumonia.

When assessing the severity of nocturnal dyspnea in a patient with a chronic respiratory disease, you should determine:

how many pillows he or she sleeps with at night.

During your assessment of a woman with chronic shortness of breath and fatigue, you ask her how many pillows she sleeps with at night. You are asking her this question to determine if:

she has left-sided heart failure and how severe it may be

A 61-year-old female called EMS after suddenly being awakened in the middle of the night with a feeling that she was "smothering." You arrive to find the patient, very apprehensive and restless, sitting on the living room couch in obvious respiratory dist

continuous positive airway pressure and an IV line set to keep the vein open.

You are dispatched to the home of a 64-year-old male patient with lung cancer. The patient complains of acute dyspnea; however, as long as he is sitting upright, his breathing is easier. He denies fever and his breath sounds are decreased over the base of

Collection of fluid outside of the lung

A 60-year-old female is in possible cardiogenic shock. She is semiconscious with shallow respirations, an irregular pulse, and hypotension. Appropriate treatment for this patient should include:

assisted ventilation with a bag-mask device, thermal management, 20 mL/kg fluid bolus, and transport.

A 77-year-old male with a history of emphysema complains of an acute worsening of his shortness of breath and pleuritic chest pain that occurred after a forceful cough. Auscultation of his lungs reveals scattered wheezing on the left side and diminished b

spontaneous pneumothorax.

You are dispatched to a residence for a 59-year-old male with an unknown emergency. When you arrive, you find the patient sitting on the couch. He is conscious, noticeably diaphoretic, and complains of dizziness and weakness. During your assessment, you n

Artificial pacemaker failure

You are dispatched to a residence for a 69-year-old female with "breathing problems." When you arrive, the patient's husband directs you to his wife, who is sitting on the couch in obvious respiratory distress. She is semiconscious and has labored, shallo

IV therapy with up to a 500 mL normal saline bolus

You respond to call at a residence for a "man down." Your primary assessment reveals that the patient, a 66-year-old male, is unresponsive, pulseless, and apneic. His wife tells you that he has recently had the flu, and that he collapsed about 10 minutes

begin CPR and apply the AED as soon as it is available

During a seizure, neurons are in a hypermetabolic state. This means that

they are using large amounts of glucose and producing lactic acid.

In contrast to an epidemic, a pandemic:

is a disease outbreak that occurs on a global scale.

Your general impression of a 50-year-old man with acute abdominal pain reveals that he is confused and has pale, diaphoretic skin. After correcting any problems with airway, breathing, and circulation, your main focus should be on:

prompt transport to the hospital.

A 33-year-old female complains of acute intense pain in both lower abdominal quadrants. She is conscious and alert, tachycardic, and has a fever of 102.5�F. You should suspect:

pelvic inflammatory disease.

Which of the following blood pressure readings indicates orthostatic hypotension?

BP lying down, 112/60 mm Hg; BP sitting up, 100/54 mm Hg

The normal range for blood glucose levels in nonfasting adults and children ranges from

80 to 120 mg/dL.

Elderly patients with diabetes commonly develop neuropathy, which predisposes them to:

atypical acute coronary syndrome

Which of the following statements regarding the geriatric patient with an acute abdomen is correct?

Severe abdominal organ dysfunction may present with mild or absent pain

A 67-year-old male complains of burning sensation in his abdomen and hematemesis. During your assessment, you note pain to palpation of his left upper quadrant; his vital signs are suggestive of shock. Which of the following conditions should you suspect?

Bleeding peptic ulcer

You should attempt to remove an imbedded stinger from a patient who was stung by a bee because:

it can inject venom for up to 20 minutes after the initial sting.

Treatment for anaphylactic shock secondary to an insect sting may include all of the following, EXCEPT:

leaving the stinger in place.

A 29-year-old pregnant woman complains of severe vomiting, which has persisted for 2 days. During your assessment, she vomits a large amount of blood and begins to develop signs of shock. You should suspect:

Mallory-Weiss syndrome

Which of the following statements regarding poisonous-plant ingestion is correct?

Ricin is the poison in castor beans and often causes death due to kidney failure.

A 25-year-old female, who is in the third trimester of pregnancy, was involved in a motor-vehicle crash and was not wearing a seatbelt. She complains of severe, tearing abdominal pain. She is experiencing dark red vaginal bleeding, and is exhibiting signs

abruptio placenta

Which of the following clinical or historical findings would be the LEAST likely to increase a woman's risk of an ectopic pregnancy?

Two spontaneous abortions

Approximately 12 hours after eating at a restaurant with his wife, a 49-year-old male complains of blurred vision, severe weakness, and difficulty breathing. This patient's clinical signs are MOST consistent with exposure to:

C botulinum

A 21-year-old female was sexually assaulted with a glass bottle. Your assessment reveals that she is semiconscious with shallow breathing. The bottle is still inside her vagina. You should:

assist ventilations, perform a head-to-toe assessment, and stabilize the bottle in place.

When palpating the abdomen of a female in pain, you should:

examine the area farthest away from the pain first.

Functions of the ovaries include:

production of oocytes, estrogen, and progesterone

When assessing a woman who has been sexually assaulted, it is important to:

have a female AEMT present if possible

You are dispatched to a residence for a young female who was sexually assaulted when a perpetrator broke into her home. She is conscious and alert and has multiple abrasions and bruises to her face and arms. As you begin to assess her, she tells you that

explain the seriousness of the situation but allow her to refuse if she wishes.

The uppermost portion of the uterus is called the:

fundus.

Alzheimer disease is an example of a/an:

organic psychiatric disorder

A 22-year-old female complains of pain during sexual intercourse. This is referred to as:

dyspareunia.

A 22-year-old female presents with lower abdominal pain; a frothy, yellow, odorous vaginal discharge; and dysuria. She tells you that she experiences severe pain during sexual intercourse. Her clinical presentation is MOST consistent with:

Trichomoniasis.

You should NOT administer emergency care to a patient who inhaled a toxic substance until:

he or she has been properly decontaminated

A 67-year-old female complains of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain that woke her from her sleep. As you and your partner enter her residence, you immediately note the smell of natural gas. Suspecting carbon monoxide toxicity, you quickly remove the pa

a pulse oximetry reading that is high does not rule out significant hypoxemia

Common signs and symptoms associated with menstruation include all of the following, EXCEPT:

60 mL to 100 mL of blood loss

A 3-year-old, 15-kg female swallowed an unknown quantity of gasoline. Your assessment reveals that she is conscious, crying, and alert. Her airway is patent and her breathing is adequate. You should:

apply 100% oxygen as tolerated and promptly transport her

When a person is exposed to cold temperatures, blood vessels in the skin:

constrict and divert blood away from the skin.

Cardiac arrest following an electrical burn would MOST likely occur if:

the electricity flows from arm to arm.

In addition to improving systemic perfusion following an electrical burn injury, you should administer IV crystalloid fluid boluses in order to:

maintain adequate urine output

Common signs and symptoms of radiation sickness include

hair loss and skin burns.

Heat that is generated by an electrical injury can cause coagulation and vascular occlusion, resulting in:

compartment syndrome.

Why does the skin become flushed or red when a person is exposed to a hot environment?

Blood vessels dilate and heat radiates to the skin surface.

You are assessing a 4-year-old male who was electrocuted when he stuck a pin into an electrical socket. He is conscious and alert and complains of pain to his left hand, where you find a small entrance wound. When treating this child, you should:

anticipate extensive internal injuries.

Common signs and symptoms of radiation sickness include:

hair loss and skin burns

Which of the following has the MOST impact on the severity of radiation injury or type of health effect?

The amount and duration of exposure

The three basic pathways by which radiation enters the body are:

inhalation, ingestion, and direct exposure.

In order for electricity to flow through the body and cause injury:

there must be a complete circuit between the electrical source and the ground

Radiation is released into the atmosphere when:

unstable atoms emit excess energy in an attempt to stabilize.

Upon arriving at the scene of a motor-vehicle crash involving a telephone pole, you note that the driver appears unconscious and is bleeding heavily from the mouth. There is a power line across the hood and roof of the car. You should:

ensure that the power line is not electrically active.

Which of the following statements regarding electrical burns is correct?

Internal injury caused by an electrical burn is usually more severe than the external burns indicate.

High-voltage burn injuries occur MOST frequently in:

utility workers.

When immobilizing a patient onto a long backboard, it is important to:

secure the torso prior to securing the head

An appropriately sized cervical collar should:

rest on the shoulder and provide support under the mandible

Manual C-spine stabilization should continue until:

the patient is fully secured to a long backboard.

When caring for a patient with significant thoracic trauma and signs of shock, it is MOST important to:

transport promptly to a trauma center.

Shortly after arriving home from the airport, a 19-year-old male experienced an acute onset of sharp chest pain and difficulty breathing. He denies a history of trauma. Your assessment reveals that he is in moderate distress and is tachycardic. Breath sou

spontaneous pneumothorax.

Following a minor head injury, which of the following occurs more commonly in children than adults?

Vomiting

A factory worker was splashed in the eyes with a strong acid chemical. He complains of intense pain and blurred vision. If you do not have sterile saline or water, you should:

irrigate both eyes continuously for 20 minutes with plain water

A 4-year-old female has a peanut lodged in the external auditory canal of her right ear. You should:

transport her to the emergency department

Which of the following medications or medical devices may inhibit the body's tachycardic response during shock?

Beta-blocker

Lethal cardiac dysrhythmias, such as ventricular fibrillation, may occur in the hypothermic patient if he or she:

is rewarmed too quickly.

Gangrene and subsequent amputation of a frostbitten extremity will MOST likely occur if it:

is rewarmed and then refreezes

When treating a diver who complains of severe pain to his joints and abdomen after returning to the surface of the water, you should manage his airway accordingly and position him:

on his left side with his head down

Heat cramps are typically the result of prolonged exposure to a hot environment, resulting in:

electrolyte depletion and severe muscle spasms.

When a warm hand touches a cold object, heat passes directly from the body to the colder object. This is an example of:

conduction

Which of the following clinical signs would indicate a core body temperature of between 89�F and 92�F?

Bradycardia

Which of the following individuals would be at GREATEST risk for developing hypothermia?

A 68-year-old female with a generalized infection

Which of the following statements regarding decompression sickness is MOST correct?

Treatment at a recompression facility is a crucial treatment

Which of the following patients is LEAST prone to a local cold injury?

A 45-year-old male with hypertension

You should assess a patient with systemic hypothermia for local cold injuries to the extremities because:

blood is shunted away from the extremities.

An 80-year-old male tripped and fell and complains of pain to his left hip. Your assessment reveals that his knee is flexed and his left leg is shortened and medially rotated. Distal neurovascular functions are grossly intact. You should immobilize this p

placing him on a scoop stretcher and padding the injury with pillows.

Because heat always travels from a warm object to a cooler one, a person standing in a cold room will lose heat by:

radiation

A 70-year-old female slipped on a throw rug, but grabbed an adjacent table before she fell to the ground. When assessing her, you should recall that:

even minor mechanisms of injury can result in fractures in the elderly

A 19-year-old male who was struck by lightning. He is unresponsive and apneic, but has a pulse. He also has widespread superficial burns. You should:

manually stabilize his head, ventilate him with a bag-mask device, and establish at least one-large bore IV.

An individual is considered to be hypothermic when his or her core body temperature falls below:

95�F.

A 40-year-old female, who is conscious and alert with mild hypothermia, should receive active external rewarming. This involves:

wrapping her in blankets and applying heat packs to her groin

How could the mammalian diving reflex protect the hypothermic patient who was submerged in water?

It slows the metabolic rate and decreases the body's oxygen demand

When assessing a 14-year-old male with an injured arm, you note gross deformity just distal to the elbow. Distal neurovascular functions are grossly intact. You should:

assume that growth plate damage has occurred

Treatment for a patient with a pit viper bite to an extremity and no signs of envenomation includes oxygen, as well as:

covering the area with a sterile dressing, splinting the extremity, and transporting.

Blunt or penetrating trauma can be especially lethal in pregnant patients because the:

gravid uterus is highly vascular.

Mild hypothermia is characterized by:

shivering, tachypnea, and peripheral vascular constriction.

Hyperthermia occurs when:

inadequate thermolysis causes reduced heat loss.

Prior to initiating CPR on an apneic, hypothermic patient, you should:

assess the carotid pulse for up to 45 seconds.

Initially, following submersion in fresh water, the lungs are not inundated with fluid because:

the larynx spasms and protects the airway

A patient with a core body temperature of 85�F would be expected to present with:

profoundly slow respirations

In a cold environment, most of a person's body heat is lost:

from the head and neck areas

Which of the following statements regarding scorpion stings is correct?

With the exception of one particular species of scorpion, most scorpion stings cause severe pain and swelling, but are not dangerous.

Which of the following types of medications would increase a person's risk of developing a heat-related illness?

Antihistamines

When transporting a moderately hypothermic patient, you must avoid unnecessary bumps in the road. Not doing so may result in:

a cardiac arrhythmia.

Signs of a ruptured urinary bladder include all of the following, EXCEPT:

hematemesis

Proximal humeral fractures MOST commonly occur:

in the elderly population

Which of the following patients has signs and symptoms that are MOST indicative of heatstroke?

A 31-year-old male with hot and moist skin, tachycardia, and confusion

When the core body temperature falls below 95�F, the patient's:

ability to regulate body temperature is lost.

The signs and symptoms of Lyme disease resulting from a tick bite are MOST commonly confused with:

rheumatoid arthritis

Which of the following assessment findings would you expect to see in a patient with a posterior hip dislocation and sciatic nerve involvement?

Inability to dorsiflex the foot

Decrease in the size of a muscle and its inherent ability to function is called:

atrophy

You are treating a 55-year-old male with heatstroke when he suddenly becomes unresponsive and stops breathing. Assessment of his carotid pulse reveals that it is weak and rapid. You should:

continue cooling measures, maintain his airway, ventilate him with a bag-mask device, transport, and request a paramedic intercept

Near-drowning is MOST accurately defined as:

recovery that lasts for at least 24 hours following submersion in water

Internal heat production is called:

thermogenesis.

Which of the following statements regarding hypothermia is correct?

Decreased thyroid gland function predisposes a person to hypothermia

A fracture that occurs in the growth section of a child's bone, which may lead to bone growth abnormalities, is called a/an __________________ fracture.

epiphyseal

You are dispatched to the residence of an 80-year-old female with a possible heat-related emergency. Your assessment reveals that she is semiconscious, has hot and dry skin, and signs of severe dehydration. You should:

move her to a cooler environment

You have delivered your patient, a 14-year-old female with a possible femur fracture, to the emergency department. After radiographic evaluation, the physician tells you that the patient has a comminuted fracture. This means that the femur:

has fractured into more than two fragments.

A frostbitten extremity is usually:

hard and waxy.

The two MOST effective mechanisms for thermolysis are:

sweating and peripheral vasodilation

During your primary assessment of a 33-year-old male with severe hypothermia, you find that he is unresponsive and has agonal breathing. You should:

assess his carotid pulse for 30 to 45 seconds

Patients with diabetes are especially prone to heat illnesses because:

autonomic neuropathy interferes with vasodilation

You are dispatched to a ski resort for a 21-year-old female with a local cold injury to her hand. Upon making contact with the patient, your MOST immediate action should be to:

move her to a warmer environment

A 30-year-old female presents with signs of dehydration, generalized weakness, and cool, clammy skin. She is conscious and alert and has an oral temperature of 101.5�F. This clinical presentation is MOST consistent with:

heat exhaustion.

Compression fractures of the spine occur more frequently in elderly patients because:

the intervertebral discs atrophy and the vertebrae become brittle

In the prehospital setting, the end of the first stage of labor is typically determined by:

the presence of crowning

A 20-year-old female presents with lower abdominal pain and scant vaginal bleeding. She is conscious and alert with a blood pressure of 124/64 mm Hg and a pulse rate of 120 beats/min and strong. When asked, she states that her last menstrual period was ap

an ectopic pregnancy

Because of the thin-walled thorax in an infant or child:

breath sounds are easily transmitted to all areas of the chest

Insertion of an intraosseous (IO) catheter is contraindicated:

if peripheral venous access is available

When speaking to an elderly patient regarding his or her chest pain, you should ask the patient:

to describe the pain

When performing CPR at a 3:1 compression to ventilation ratio on a newborn in cardiac arrest, you should deliver ____ compressions and ____ breaths each minute.

90, 30

During your visual inspection of a 30-year-old female in labor, you see the infant's leg protruding from the vagina. In addition to administering high-flow oxygen to the mother and transporting immediately, you should:

place the mother supine with her head down and hips elevated

Because the gastrointestinal tract slows with aging, the elderly patient is prone to frequent:

bowel obstructions.

The AEMT should suspect meningitis when caring for a 3-month-old infant who:

cannot bend his neck forward without pain.

Descent of the fetal head to the pelvic inlet (lightening) occurs:

in the third trimester of pregnancy.

Which of the following signs is MOST indicative of a severe upper airway obstruction?

Ineffective coughing

After stopping the ambulance en route to the hospital to assist your partner with the delivery of an infant, you should resume transport after delivery has occurred and:

any needed newborn resuscitation has occurred.

Which of the following is NOT a major physiologic change that occurs during the fetal transition process?

The umbilical vessels are clamped and cut, which removes the high-resistance placental circuit.

In addition to appropriate airway management and high-flow oxygen, the MOST appropriate care for a pregnant woman in shock includes:

adequate fluid resuscitation and immediate transport.

A 4-year-old child presents with intercostal retractions, nasal flaring, a heart rate of 160 beats/min, and a fever of 101.5�F. Which of the following clinical signs would indicate that this child's cardiopulmonary status is deteriorating?

Heart rate decreases to 100 beats/min

Major events that typically occur during the first trimester of pregnancy include all of the following, EXCEPT:

notable movement of the fetus by the mother.

Vaginal bleeding during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy is MOST commonly caused by a/an:

miscarriage.

Which of the following factors would be of LEAST pertinence when determining whether or not to immediately transport a sick or injured child?

The age and sex of the child

Which of the following findings would fall into the "E" category of the GEMS diamond?

You slip on a throw rug upon entering the home of an elderly patient who fell

To obtain a sniffing position in a child under 3 years of age, you should:

place a folded sheet or towel under the child's occiput

The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are key hormones in the development of a mature egg. On a monthly basis, FSH and LH are released by the:

pituitary gland.

A baby is born at 34 weeks' gestation. Its body is cyanotic and it has weak muscle tone. Further assessment reveals that the infant has a weak cry, a heart rate of approximately 90 beats/min, and irregular respirations of approximately 12 breaths/min. Wha

4

After performing the jaw-thrust maneuver on a semiconscious child with a traumatic injury, you should:

ensure that the airway is clear of obstructions

At what period during pregnancy are the fetal lungs capable of producing pulmonary surfactant?

Weeks 25 to 27

Upon entering the residence of an elderly patient who has fallen, you should ensure personal safety and then:

evaluate the patient's living environment

After drying, warming, and suctioning the mouth and nose of an infant following birth, you note that the baby's respirations are gasping, and irregular. You should:

briefly flick the soles of the feet or gently rub the back or trunk.

A 5-year-old female presents with an altered mental status. Her mother states that her daughter did not eat lunch and has been playing outside all day. After ensuring a patent airway and administering oxygen, you should:

obtain a blood glucose reading.

During a breech delivery, the baby's legs and trunk deliver; however, the head does not deliver spontaneously. You should:

keep the infant's mouth and nose away from the vaginal wall.

The thick, muscular layer of the uterus is called the:

myometrium

What effects could gestational diabetes have on the fetus?

Large body size and hypoglycemia

Which of the following statements regarding shock in pediatric patients is correct?

Children can compensate for shock longer than adults but deteriorate more quickly.

A premature infant is one that is born before:

36 weeks or weighs less than 5 pounds

Which of the following is an example of physical abuse?

Poor personal care

Which of the following statements regarding vision in the older patient is correct?

The pupils require more time to adjust to changes in light.

Following a rapid delivery, your 28-year-old patient's uterus has inverted. The MOST appropriate initial management for this condition is to:

use the palm of your hand and make one attempt to replace the uterus.

Because a child's ribs are softer and more flexible than an adult's:

compression injuries can occur without external trauma.

Victims of elder abuse often do not report the crime because they:

fear retribution and further abuse

It is MOST important to suction the newborn's mouth before the nose because:

aspiration may occur if the newborn gasps when the nose is suctioned.

Which of the following conditions would NOT cause acute delirious behavior?

Alzheimer disease

Proper insertion of an intraosseous (IO) catheter involves:

using a twisting motion and inserting the catheter at a 90� angle

Which of the following is a LATE sign of preeclampsia?

Hyperactive reflexes

A 20 kg conscious male presents with acute respiratory distress. Your assessment reveals expiratory wheezing and tachycardia. Appropriate treatment for this child includes:

100% oxygen and 1 to 2 mL of nebulized albuterol

A 21-year-old female in her third trimester of pregnancy was involved in a motor-vehicle crash. She was unrestrained and struck a telephone pole while traveling approximately 40 MPH. She complains of severe abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding and has sign

uterine rupture.

While assessing the skin color of a newborn, you note the presence of central cyanosis. Initial management for this condition involves:

administering free-flow oxygen and continually assessing

After administering 30 seconds of free-flow oxygen to a newborn with central cyanosis, you note that the cyanosis is not improving. You should:

perform positive-pressure ventilation with 100% oxygen.

Which of the following statements regarding the umbilical cord is correct?

The umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood to the fetus

When dealing with a suspected case of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), in which the infant is obviously dead, it is important for the AEMT to:

appreciate his or her own feelings regarding the event.

When suctioning the oropharynx of a 3-year-old child, you should:

closely monitor the child for heart rate changes

A nonrebreathing mask is ONLY effective if a child has:

adequate tidal volume.

Appropriate management for an unresponsive 6-month-old infant with a severe foreign body airway obstruction includes:

chest compressions

Tracheal tugging, a sign of respiratory distress, is more prominent in children because the:

trachea is very narrow and is easily collapsible.

When assessing an 82-year-old female who takes multiple medications, you should:

determine overall medication compliance

The length-based resuscitation tape is accurate for estimating the weight of children up to:

34 kg

The nasopharyngeal airway is:

rarely used in infants younger than 1 year of age.

Which of the following questions is the MOST important to ask the parent or caregiver of a child with an acute asthma attack?

Has your child ever been intubated or in the ICU?

Which of the following statements regarding peripheral cyanosis is correct?

It is limited to the hands and feet and is a common finding.

How would you classify a woman who has been pregnant twice, had a miscarriage with her first pregnancy, and is now in active labor?

Gravida 2, para 0

Once the gravid uterus grows superiorly and puts pressure on the diaphragm, the mother's:

respiratory rate increases to compensate for decreased tidal volume

When assessing or performing a procedure on a toddler, you should expect him or her to:

resist separation from his or her parents.

A 29-year-old female has experienced a spontaneous abortion during the latter part of her first trimester. She is conscious and alert, with a blood pressure of 100/60 mm Hg and a heart rate of 100 beats/min and strong. In addition to providing emotional s

start a large-bore IV of normal saline and transport

An embryo is referred to as a fetus beyond the ______ week of gestation.

ninth

When administering crystalloid solutions to the newborn, you should:

deliver the fluid over 5 to 10 minutes.

At 11:50 p.m., you are dispatched to a residence for a 3-year-old female with respiratory distress. The child's mother tells you that her daughter has had symptoms of a cold for the past few days. Your assessment reveals that the child is tachycardic, has

croup.

Which of the following is the LEAST common cause of shock in infants and children?

Primary cardiac event

Compared to over-the-needle catheters, butterfly catheters are associated with a higher rate of vein infiltration in children because the:

stainless steel needle lies directly in the vein

During pregnancy, the mother may experience a relative respiratory alkalosis when her:

respiratory rate increases

When assessing a 30-year-old female in her second trimester of pregnancy, the MOST important clinical sign of preeclampsia for the AEMT to recognize is:

hypertension.

An umbilical catheter that is inserted too far may:

enter the portal venous system and injure the liver.

Which of the following statements regarding blood loss and shock in the pediatric patient is correct?

Children can tolerate a lower proportional blood loss than adults, before developing shock.

Your assessment of a newborn reveals signs of hypovolemia. In addition to providing appropriate airway management, you should obtain vascular access and:

give 10 mL/kg of an isotonic crystalloid over 5 to 10 minutes.

Despite 100% oxygen and the administration of a beta-2 agonist, a conscious 9-year-old female still has diffuse expiratory wheezing and respiratory distress. Medical control or local protocol will MOST likely dictate the administration of:

1:1,000 epinephrine SC

The external female genitalia are referred to as the:

vulva.

After the baby's head delivers, you should tell the mother to:

stop pushing so you can suction the infant's mouth and nose.

Following delivery of the placenta, your patient continues to experience vaginal bleeding. She is becoming diaphoretic and her pulse is weak and rapid. In addition to administering 100% oxygen and providing rapid transport, you should:

cover the vagina with a sanitary pad, keep her warm, and infuse 20 mL/kg boluses of an isotonic crystalloid to maintain perfusion.

You receive a call to a residence for a "sick child." Upon arrival, the mother states that her child, a 3-year-old male, has been experiencing vomiting and diarrhea for the past 24 hours. Your assessment reveals that the child is conscious, but has a decr

moderate dehydration.

Although the alveoli become enlarged, elderly people have difficulty expelling used air from the lungs because of:

decreased alveolar elasticity secondary to decreased surfactant

When providing emotional support to the family of an infant who suddenly and unexpectedly died, you should:

use the infant's first name whenever possible.

According to the JumpSTART triage system, if an injured child has a respiratory rate of 50 breaths/min, you should:

assign him an immediate category.

You receive a call for a 4-year-old female with severe dehydration. When you assess her, you note that she is semiconscious, has a weak and rapid carotid pulse, and rapid respirations with reduced tidal volume. The MOST appropriate treatment for this chil

assisted ventilation and rapid transport with IV therapy en route to the hospital.

An 8-year-old child requires fluid resuscitation to treat severe dehydration. The child's mother is so upset that she cannot tell you how much her child weighs. On the basis of the child's age, you should administer a _____ mL bolus of an isotonic crystal

480

The ductus arteriosus constricts in response to:

pulmonary vessel dilation and an increase in blood oxygen levels.

Immediately following delivery, which of the following findings would necessitate further assessment and potential treatment of the newborn?

Brown amniotic fluid

A 71-year-old male presents with sudden diaphoresis, malaise, and near-syncope. You should be MOST suspicious for:

myocardial infarction.

Syncope in an elderly person is the result of a/an:

temporary interruption of cerebral blood flow

A 69-year-old female presents with chest pressure and nausea. As you begin your assessment, the patient's husband hands you a valid "do not resuscitate" (DNR) document and tells you that his wife has terminal cancer. How should you manage this situation?

Treat the patient as though she is experiencing a myocardial infarction.

Following delivery of an infant that is 34 weeks' gestation, you should:

thoroughly dry and warm the newborn

When a pregnant woman's system is stressed due to shock, her body will:

shunt blood away from the uterus and fetus

Alzheimer and Parkinson's disease are examples of ____________ causes of an altered mental status.

degenerative

During early infancy, infants respond mainly to:

physical stimuli such as hunger.

Once the amniotic sac has ruptured, it is optimal that the fetus be delivered within:

24 hours.

When providing positive-pressure ventilations to a newborn, additional fluids may need to be cleared from the alveoli; therefore, you:

may need to occlude the pop-off valve on the bag-mask device.

A 12-year-old female complains of nausea and abdominal pain. When assessing and treating her, you should:

obtain as much of the medical history from her as possible.

When positioning and managing the airway of a small child, it is important to remember that the child's:

occipital skull is proportionately larger and rounder than an adult's.

When interviewing a 70-year-old male with a headache, you ask him when the headache began. What should you do if he does not answer your question immediately?

Remain patient and give him time to comprehend and answer your question

After providing 30 seconds of positive-pressure ventilations to a premature newborn, your partner assesses the infant's heart rate and finds that it is 50 beats/min. You should:

advise your partner to initiate chest compressions

An embryo is referred to as a fetus beyond the ______ week of gestation

ninth

In addition to supplemental oxygen, treatment for a child who is experiencing an acute asthma attack includes:

albuterol.

The MOST effective method for delivering the highest concentration of oxygen and adequate tidal volume is the:

two-rescuer bag-mask technique

Which of the following statements regarding febrile seizures is correct?

An abrupt rise in body temperature may cause a febrile seizure

Abnormalities in normal bone growth and development will MOST likely occur in children when:

a fracture occurs at the epiphyseal plate

When treating a conscious and alert 5-year-old child who has ingested an unknown substance, you should:

be prepared to assist ventilations

You are assessing an 18-month-old female who, according to her mother, is "not acting right." The mother tells you that her daughter has been ill recently, but denies vomiting or diarrhea. The child is lethargic and her blood glucose level reads 65 mg/dL.

give 2 to 4 mL/kg of 25% dextrose.

Elderly patients who become isolated from outside social events are susceptible to all of the following, EXCEPT:

medication compliance.

You are dispatched to a residence for a 33-year-old pregnant female with vaginal bleeding. The patient's husband tells you that she is 37 weeks' pregnant and has not had any problems with this pregnancy. Your assessment reveals the presence of bright red

placenta previa.

When assessing an injured child, you should be MOST suspicious for child abuse if:

the injury is inconsistent with the mechanism described.

Which of the following interventions should be carried out on every newborn, regardless of his or her appearance at birth?

Drying, warming, and suctioning

When assessing an 80-year-old male with acute shortness of breath, it is MOST important to remember that:

gas exchange in the lungs and at the cellular level is decreased.

Cardiopulmonary arrest in infants and children is MOST often the result of:

respiratory failure.

You are transporting a 6-year-old female with respiratory distress when you note that she is developing cyanosis. You should:

repeat the primary assessment.

Which of the following is considered a critical burn in an infant or small child?

Any full-thickness burn

Decompensated shock in a 2-year-old child is characterized by all of the following, EXCEPT:

a systolic BP of 80 mm Hg.

As the baby begins to deliver, you note that it presents in a vertex position. This means that:

the head is the presenting part

The passageway for the downward movement of an ovum from the ovary, and for upward movement of sperm from the uterus, is called the:

fallopian tube

A 5-year-old male presents with respiratory distress, a decreased level of consciousness, bradypnea, and poor muscle tone. When treating this child, you should:

recognize that his minute volume is reduced.

Upon delivery of the baby's head, you note the presence of meconium on its face. After suctioning the mouth and nose, you complete the delivery. Your assessment reveals that the infant is vigorous, crying loudly, and has good muscle tone. Appropriate mana

continuing your assessment as usual and providing prompt transport.

A 5-year-old male with a history of recent bronchitis presents with fever, weakness, and difficulty breathing. Your assessment reveals diminished breath sounds in the left lower lobe of the lung and localized rhonchi. You should suspect:

pneumonia.

The MOST important prehospital treatment for an abnormal fetal presentation is to:

transport the mother as soon as possible

In which of the following situations should you perform CPR?

A10-month-old unconscious male with weak breathing and a heart rate of 50/min

Cross-contamination occurs when:

an AEMT is exposed to a victim who has not yet been decontaminated.

The term used when individual units or different organizations make independent and often inefficient decisions regarding an incident is called:

freelancing.

Which of the following statements regarding the power lift is correct?

It is the safest and most powerful method of lifting a patient

When a person is standing upright, the weight of anything being lifted and carried in the hands is FIRST reflected onto the:

shoulder girdle.

Historically, the weak point at most major incidents has been:

communication

Multiple people in a small town began experiencing abdominal cramps, excessive salivation and urination, and muscle twitching shortly after a small crop duster plane made several passes over the community. As you are assessing the patients, you further de

atropine and pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM).

The development of an incident action plan is the responsibility of the:

planning section.

A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is MOST accurately defined as:

any agent used to bring about mass death, casualties, or massive infrastructural damage.

The means by which a terrorist will spread a particular agent is called:

dissemination.

The primary route of exposure of vesicant agents is the:

skin.

A 56-year-old female is found supine in a narrow hallway of her mobile home. She complains of severe weakness and dizziness, and states that she is unable to walk. There is no evidence of trauma and the patient states that she did not fall. How should you

Extremity lift

Continual reassessment of the scene at a suspected terrorist or WMD incident is MOST important because:

a secondary explosive device may detonate.

The chemical attacks that occurred in Tokyo between 1994 and 1995 were carried out by a/an:

violent religious group

A disease vector is defined as:

any agent that acts as a carrier or transporter.

Which of the following steps is NOT proper procedure when performing an emergency move?

Lifting the patient by the belt to move him or her

Most terrorist attacks:

require multiple terrorists working together

The FIRST step in the START triage system is to:

move all walking patients to a designated area.

As the first-arriving senior AEMT at the scene of an incident, you should perform a scene size-up and then:

establish command.

When the shoulder girdle is aligned over the pelvis during lifting:

the weight is exerted straight down the vertebrae

The FIRST rule of safe lifting is to:

keep your back in a straight, vertical position

Which of the following statements regarding the scoop stretcher is NOT correct?

A scoop stretcher will provide adequate immobilization of a patient's spinal column.

Which of the following statements regarding blast injuries is correct?

Solid organs are relatively protected from shock wave injury but may be injured during the secondary or tertiary blast phase.

Which of the following activities occurs in the warm zone?

Decontamination

A folding or portable stretcher is MOST beneficial when:

a second patient must be transported on the squad bench of the ambulance.

A persistent or nonvolatile chemical agent can:

remain on a surface for more than 24 hours.

The MOST appropriate location to park your ambulance at a HazMat incident is:

upwind at least 100' from the incident.

All of the following biologic agents or diseases can be transmitted from person to person, EXCEPT:

ricin.

When using a body drag to pull a patient who is on the ground, you should:

kneel to minimize the distance that you will have to lean over.

In most instances, you should move a patient on a wheeled ambulance stretcher by:

pushing the head of the stretcher while your partner guides the foot.

During a HazMat incident, you are working in the treatment area. As patients are removed from the danger zone, you should:

remain where you are and have the patients brought to you.

Burn patients without airway compromise and patients with multiple bone or joint injuries should be marked with a __________ triage at a mass-casualty incident.

yellow

During a motor vehicle collision involving multiple patients, the IC would MOST likely:

designate a safety officer, but retain other command functions.

Which of the following conditions or situations presents the MOST unique challenge to the AEMT when immobilizing an elderly patient on a long backboard?

Abnormal spinal curvature

Nerve agents, a class of chemicals called organophosphates, were first discovered while in search of a superior:

pesticide

Early signs and symptoms of smallpox include all of the following, EXCEPT:

skin blisters.

A supervisor who has more than seven people reporting to him or her:

has exceeded an effective span of control and should divide tasks and delegate the supervision of some tasks to another person.

The proper technique for using the power grip is to:

lift with your palms up.

Which of the following statements regarding hazardous materials is correct?

Some substances are not hazardous by themselves, but become toxic when mixed with another chemical.

You are approaching an overturned tanker truck to assess the driver, who appears to be unconscious. As you get closer to the vehicle, you note the smell of noxious fumes and find that you are in the midst of a vapor cloud. What should you do?

Exit the area immediately and gather information for the HazMat team.

Which of the following terrorist groups poses the LEAST threat to a person's physical safety?

Technology terrorists

You have a critically injured patient in the back of your ambulance, ready to be transported. There are other injured patients at the scene and it will be approximately 10 minutes before other ambulances will arrive. Law enforcement personnel are at the s

remain at the scene until at least one other ambulance arrives

Which of the following is NOT a role of the AEMT at the scene of a HazMat incident?

Decontamination

The __________ area is where incoming ambulances meet and await further instructions at the scene of a mass-casualty incident.

staging

As the first arriving emergency responder at the scene of a suspected terrorist or WMD incident, you should request additional resources as needed and then:

function as the incident commander until additional personnel arrive.

Pulmonary hemorrhage and inner ear damage are examples of __________ blast injuries.

primary

Upon arriving at the scene of a motor vehicle crash, you find a single patient still seated in his car. There are no scene hazards. As you approach the vehicle, you note that the patient is semiconscious and has a large laceration to his forehead. You sho

direct your partner to apply manual in-line support of the patient's head.

You and your partner arrive at the scene of a fire at a large office complex. Witnesses tell you that they heard a loud explosion shortly before the building caught fire. You should:

ensure that your ambulance is parked upwind and uphill from the building.

A carboy is a container that would MOST likely be used to store and transport:

corrosives

You have two patients who were involved in a motor vehicle crash when their SUV struck a tree�one with neck and back pain, and the other with a deformed left femur. The patient with the deformed femur states that he does not want to be placed on a hard bo

Immobilize the patient with neck and back pain on a long backboard and place him on the wheeled stretcher; place the patient with the deformed femur on a folding stretcher secured to the squad bench.

Situations in which you should use the rapid extrication technique include all of the following, EXCEPT:

a patient who can be properly assessed while still in the vehicle.

A critical aspect of the rapid extrication technique is to:

maintain stabilization of the spine at all times.

Command functions under the ICS include all of the following, EXCEPT:

triage officer

Unlike a mass-casualty incident, a natural disaster:

often requires personnel to remain on scene for several days.

In determining the potential for a terrorist attack, you should routinely observe all of the following on every call, EXCEPT:

weather conditions

Following proper decontamination, a 30-year-old male is brought to you. He is semiconscious and has rapid, shallow respirations. A quick visual assessment reveals no obvious bleeding. You should:

begin some form of positive-pressure ventilation.

It is essential that you ____________ your equipment to prevent the spread of disease.

decontaminate

In which of the following situations would a direct ground lift be the MOST appropriate method of moving a patient?

conscious patient complaining of abdominal pain

An attack on an abortion clinic would MOST likely be carried out by a/an:

single-issue group

When carrying a patient on a backboard up or down stairs:

keep the head end elevated

You should not attempt to lift a patient who weighs more than 250 lb with fewer than _______ rescuers, regardless of individual strength.

four

An unrestrained patient is sitting in his car after an automobile crash. He is conscious and alert, has no visible trauma, and is complaining of neck and back pain. Before removing him from his car, you should:

apply a cervical collar and immobilize him with a vest-style device

In order to facilitate a safe and coordinated move, the team leader should:

use preparatory commands to initiate any moves.

You and your partner respond to the scene of a 49-year-old male with acute abdominal pain. As you enter his residence, you find him lying on the floor in severe pain. He is conscious and alert. The patient appears to weigh in excess of 350 lb. Your FIRST

request additional personnel before making any attempts to lift him.

Which of the following chemicals is a nerve agent?

Soman

In which of the following situations is an emergency patient move indicated?

The AEMT is unable to protect the patient from scene hazards.

Which of the following is NOT a factor in determining how to protect oneself against the effects of radiation?

Body size

You and your partner arrive at the scene where a truck has crashed into a small building, injuring eight people. You immediately request additional ambulances and begin the triage process. The first patient that you triage is a young female who is unconsc

assign her a low priority and continue triaging.

You are assessing a 30-year-old female who presents with respiratory distress and tachycardia after she opened a package that was delivered to her home. The patient tells you that there was a fine white powder on the package, but she did not think it was

anthrax.

The primary clinical feature associated with exposure to phosgene oxime is:

skin blistering

A patient in respiratory arrest at the scene of a mass-casualty incident would typically be classified as a fourth priority (black tag; expectant) patient, unless:

there are enough resources to provide care for him or her.

With proper technique, the AEMT and his or her partner should be able to safely lift a patient who weighs up to ______ lb.

220

When pulling a patient, you should extend your arms no more than ________ in front of your torso.

15? to 20?

After eating at a local restaurant, a 20-year-old male complains of blurred vision, difficulty speaking, and difficulty breathing. He is conscious; however, his respirations are profoundly labored and producing minimal tidal volume. You should:

assist his ventilations with 100% oxygen.

Which of the following agents blocks the body's ability to use oxygen and possesses an odor similar to almonds?

Hydrogen cyanide

A tour bus has overturned, resulting in numerous patients. When you arrive, you are immediately assigned to assist in the triage process. Patient 1 is a middle-aged male with respiratory distress, chest pain, and a closed deformity to his right forearm. P

Patient 1, immediate (red); Patient 2, delayed (yellow); Patient 3, immediate (red); Patient 4, expectant (black)

The LEAST harmful form of ionizing radiation is:

alpha

Unlike viruses and bacteria, neurotoxins:

are not contagious

The process of removing or neutralizing and properly disposing of a hazardous material is called:

decontamination

After primary triage, the triage supervisor should communicate all of the following information to the medical branch officer, EXCEPT:

the recommended transport destination for each patient.

As you and your partner are carrying a stable patient down a flight of stairs in a stair chair, you feel a sudden, sharp pain in your lower back. You should:

stop the move and request additional lifting assistance

Unlike bacterial agents, viral agents:

are usually not treatable

Which of the following is the MOST appropriate device to use when immobilizing a patient with a suspected spinal injury?

Long backboard

Signs and symptoms of exposure to a nerve agent include:

salivation, pinpoint pupils, and diarrhea.

Which of the following situations would require an urgent patient move?

Semiconscious patient with shallow respirations and signs of shock

The purpose of the incident command system (ICS) is to:

ensure responder and public safety, achieve incident management goals, and ensure the effective use of resources.

Which of the following statements regarding an emergency patient move is correct?

An emergency move is performed before the primary assessment and treatment.

When victims involved in a mass-casualty incident are moved to the treatment area:

secondary triage is performed and the appropriate treatment is rendered

When carrying a patient up or down stairs, you should avoid:

using a wheeled stretcher whenever possible.

To minimize the risk of injuring yourself when lifting or moving a patient, you should:

keep the weight as close to your body as possible.

Which of the following statements regarding a "dirty bomb" is correct?

Dirty bombs could injure victims with both radioactive material and the explosive material used to deliver it.

Injuries or conditions that would be classified as first priority (red tag; immediate) include all of the following, EXCEPT:

fractures of multiple long bones.

Most acts of terror are:

covert.

A patient who has experienced a back injury, with or without spinal cord damage, should be triaged with a __________ tag during a mass-casualty incident.

yellow

Which of the following statements regarding the neonatal isolette is correct?

The isolette serves to keep the neonate warm and protects from excess handling.

Botulinum is:

a potent bacterial neurotoxin

You are triaging four patients who were involved in a head-on motor vehicle crash. Which of the following patients should be assigned the highest (red) triage category?

A 49-year-old female with diabetes and difficulty breathing

Which of the following chemicals requires identification with a placard, regardless of how many pounds the shipment weighs?

Water-reactive solids

The JumpSTART triage system is intended to be used for children younger than _____ years or who appear to weigh less than _____.

8, 100 lb

Which of the following patients should be assigned an immediate (red tag) category?

22-year-old male with blunt abdominal trauma, tachycardia, pallor, and diaphoresis

The process performed to artificially maximize the target population's exposure to a biologic agent, thereby exposing the greatest number of people and achieving the desired effect, is called:

weaponization

At a very large incident, the __________ section is responsible for managing the tactical operations usually handled by the IC on routine EMS calls.

operations

When multiple patients present with an acute onset of difficulty breathing, chest tightness, and hoarseness or stridor, you should be MOST suspicious of exposure to:

phosgene or chlorine

Which of the following questions is of LEAST pertinence when the AEMT is determining whether or not to declare a mass-casualty incident and activate the ICS?

How many paramedics are able to respond to the scene and provide advanced care?

According to the START triage system, what should you do if a patient is found to have a respiratory rate of 24 breaths/min?

Assess for bilateral radial pulses.

The type and severity of wounds sustained from incendiary and explosive devices primarily depend on the:

patient's distance from the epicenter of the explosion.

Which of the following statements regarding transport of patients from a mass-casualty incident or disaster site is correct?

Immediate-priority patients should be transported two at a time.

In contrast to typical wheeled ambulance stretchers, features of a bariatric stretcher include:

increased stability due to a wider wheelbase.

Which of the following statements regarding HIV is correct?

HIV cannot enter the bloodstream through intact skin

Continuous quality improvement (CQI) involves all of the following components, EXCEPT:

negative feedback to those who make mistakes while on a call

You arrive at the scene of an overturned semi-trailer truck. There is an odd odor in the air and you can see material leaking from the truck. After ensuring that fire department and law enforcement personnel are notified, you should:

use binoculars to try to read the placard

In most instances, a valid do not resuscitate (DNR) order must meet which of the following requirements

It must clearly state the patient's medical condition

A male patient is reporting crushing chest pain. Prior to informing an invasive procedure on him, you must:

explain the risks and benefits of the procedure to the patient

You respond to the home of a 75-year-old man who is in cardiac arrest. The family states that the patient is terminally ill and has an advance directive; however, they are unable to locate it. How should you manage this situation?

Begin CPR and contact medical control

Authorization to use an automatic transport ventilator when transporting a patient requires which minimum level of EMS provider?

EMT

Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is a major female hormone that:

is manufactured by the developing embryo to sustain the pregnancy

A 70-year-old male with a history of esophageal cancer is unresponsive with slow, shallow respirations. Appropriate airway management for this patient includes:

inserting an oral airway and ventilating with a bag-mask device

When using the bag-mask device to ventilate an apneic patient who has dentures, you should:

periodically reassess the airway to ensure the dentures are not loose

The hypoxic drive stimulates breathing when the:

arterial oxygen level falls

Signs of a sudden severe upper airway obstruction include all of the following, EXCEPT:

forceful coughing

CPR should be initiated when:

a valid living will is unavailable

What is the minimum number of chest compressions that should be delivered per minute to a 4-month-old infant?

100

After an advanced airway device has been inserted during cardiac arrest, you should ventilate an infant or child:

by giving one breath every 6 to 8 seconds

Initial treatment to dislodge a severe foreign body airway obstruction in a responsive infant involves:

back blows

A 40-year-old male is unconscious, has inadequate breathing, and is producing copious, continuous secretions from his mouth. This situation is MOST effectively managed by:

suctioning for 15 seconds and ventilating for 2 minutes

A 72-year-old male with a tracheal stoma requires ventilatory assistance. However, when you attempt to ventilate, you meet resistance. You should:

suction the stoma and mouth

When ventilating a patient with a stoma and a tracheostomy tube, you should:

attach the bag-mask device to the 15-mm adaptor on the tube

Which of the following statements regarding the use of the AED in children is correct?

AED use in children up to 12 to 14 years of age involves pediatric pads and an energy reducer

When choosing an IV site on an elderly patient, you should:

know that varicose veins allow minimal circulation

A 77-year-old man presents with hypertension, anuria, generalized edema, and tachypnea. This clinical presentation is MOST consistent with:

acute renal failure

During your assessment of an elderly woman, you note a shunt on her left forearm. This indicates that she:

receives hemodialysis treatments

Medically, the term "diabetes" refers to:

impairment of the body to metabolize carbohydrates

Assuming that previous exposure and sensitization has occurred, which of the following patients will likely experience the MOST severe allergic reaction?

A 40-year-old female who was stung by a yellow jacket

You are dispatched to a residence for a 60-year-old diabetic male who is unresponsive. As you are assessing the patient, your partner attempts to obtain a blood glucose reading; however, the glucometer reads "error" after two attempts. You should manage t

start an IV and administer 50 mL of 50% dextrose

A 69-year-old male with a history of hypertension and insulin-dependent diabetes complains of an acute onset of tearing pain in the lower quadrants of his abdomen that radiates to the back. His blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg, pulse is 110 beats/min and thr

ruptured or dissecting aortic aneurysm

The normal range for blood glucose levels in nonfasting adults and children ranges from:

80 to 120 mg/dL

You respond to a movie theater for a 70-year-old male who is confused. His wife tells you he has type 2 diabetes but refuses to take his pills. Your assessment reveals that he is diaphoretic, tachycardic, and tachypneic. Initial treatment for this patient

applying a nonrebreathing mask at 15 L/min

The ____________ is a solid organ.

ovary

A 50-year-old male with a blood sugar level of 38 mg/dL would be expected to present with all of the following, EXCEPT:

severe dehydration

Patients with COPD are highly susceptible to pneumonia because:

they cannot effectively expel infected pulmonary secretions

A 30-year-old male presents with a partial seizure to his left arm. His wife denies that he has ever had seizures in the past. Which of the following conditions would be the LEAST likely cause of this patient's seizure?

Idiopathic epilepsy

A 60-year-old male presents with shortness of breath and a productive cough of two days' duration. He denies chest pain or any other associated symptoms. Auscultation of his lungs reveals scattered bilateral rhonchi in all fields. His skin is pink, warm,

bronchitis

When defibrillating a 6-month-old infant, you should recall that:

a manual defibrillator is preferred

Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that results in:

excess sodium loss and thick pulmonary secretions

Which of the following clinical presentations is consistent with a malfunctioning implanted pacemaker?

Syncope and bradycardia

You are dispatched to a residence for a 4-year-old male who is not breathing. When you and your partner arrive at the scene, you find the child's father is performing mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing on him. The father tells you that his son stuck a pin in

begin CPR and apply the AED as soon as possible

Approximately 2 weeks following a total hip replacement, a 70-year-old female complains of a sudden onset of dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain. Your assessment reveals perioral cyanosis, blood-tinged sputum, and wheezing to the base of her right lung. As y

a pulmonary embolism

Chronic carbon dioxide retention, as seen in patients with certain lung diseases, may cause the patient to:

breathe on the basis of decreased oxygen

A 59-year-old female with a history of poorly controlled hypertension becomes acutely dyspneic, develops profound cyanosis to the upper chest, and becomes unresponsive. She is pulseless and apneic upon your arrival. As you and your partner are performing

massive pulmonary embolism

The coronary arteries of a person with arteriosclerotic heart disease:

are thickened and hardened and lose their elasticity

Emphysema, a degenerative disease, is caused by:

surfactant destruction and increased alveolar surface tension

You are dispatched to an assisted-living center for a 67-year-old male with "mental status changes." You arrive at the scene and begin to assess the patient. He is responsive to painful stimuli only, has rapid and shallow breathing, and a slow radial puls

begin assisting the patient's ventilations

A degenerative cerebral disease is an example of a(n) ______________ cause of a seizure.

structural

With regard to potential treatment in the hospital, which of the following questions is MOST important to ask the spouse of a 66-year-old female who presents with signs and symptoms of an acute ischemic stroke?

When did you first notice the symptoms?

The clonic phase of a generalized motor seizure is characterized by:

muscle contraction and relaxation occurring in rapid succession

You are transporting a 60-year-old male to the hospital for suspected COPD exacerbation. He is receiving 100% oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask. As you reassess him, you note that his respirations have decreased and have become shallow. You should:

begin assisting his ventilations

When assessing a 70-year-old male with suspected internal bleeding, which of the following findings would be MOST pertinent?

Dizziness or syncope upon standing

You are dispatched to an industrial plant for a worker who was exposed to an unknown chemical. Upon arrival, you find the patient sitting outside of the plant. He has a white, dry powder covering his right arm. Care for this patient's exposure includes:

brushing the chemical from the patient's arm and then irrigating with water.

An elderly male was removed from his burning house by firefighters. He has extensive full-thickness burns; is semiconscious; and has shallow, stridorous respirations. The firefighters have already stopped the burning process. After ensuring an open airway

assist his ventilations with a bag-mask device and 100% oxygen

During your rapid assessment of an unconscious 67-year-old female, you note signs of shock and the presence of hematochezia. You should be MOST suspicious for:

lower gastrointestinal bleeding

utility worker was trimming branches away from a high power line when he accidentally cut the power line. He is unresponsive, apneic, and pulseless. You should begin CPR and then:

apply the AED as soon as possible

A 1-year-old female sustained blunt abdominal trauma following a motor-vehicle crash in which she was not properly restrained. Significant signs and symptoms will MOST likely occur after as little as _____ of blood loss.

100 mL

An industrial-plant worker was splashed in the left eye with a strong acid chemical. The MOST appropriate initial care for this patient's injury is to:

irrigate the eye laterally, away from the unaffected eye

When a light is shone into the pupil:

it should become smaller in size

A 6-year-old female was riding her bicycle and struck a clothesline with her throat. She is breathing, but with obvious difficulty. Your assessment reveals a crackling sensation in the soft tissues of her neck and facial cyanosis. In addition to the appro

rapidly transporting her to the hospital

You are caring for an 11-month-old male who fell from a second-story window and landed on his head. While assessing him, it is important to remember that:

he could develop hypovolemic shock from intracranial bleeding

You are transporting an immobilized patient with severe facial trauma. As you are preparing to give your radio report to the hospital, the patient begins vomiting large amounts of blood. You should:

turn the backboard onto its side

A 37-year-old male was struck on the driver side of his vehicle by another car traveling at 45 mph. Your primary assessment reveals that the patient is semiconscious and in respiratory distress. When extricating this patient from his car, you should:

apply a C-collar and rapidly remove him on a long backboard

A subdural hematoma is an accumulation of blood:

beneath the dura mater but outside the brain

A construction worker is pinned in between a truck and a loading dock. He is conscious and in respiratory distress. Further assessment reveals upper torso and facial cyanosis and bilateral conjunctival hemorrhages. When treating this patient, you must:

be prepared for severe hypotension once he is freed

An 81-year-old female fell and struck her head. You find the patient lying on her left side. She is conscious and complains of neck and upper back pain. As you are assessing her, you note that she has a severely kyphotic spine. What is the MOST appropriat

Leave her on her side and use blanket rolls to immobilize her to the long backboard

Shortly after returning to the surface of the water, a scuba diver experiences an acute onset of pleuritic chest pain and difficulty breathing. He is tachycardic and his pulse is irregular. You should suspect:
Select one:
A. air embolism.
B. acute nitroge

A. air embolism.

An individual is considered to be hypothermic when his or her core body temperature falls below:
Select one:
A. 97�F.
B. 95�F.
C. 90�F.
D. 85�F.

B. 95�F.

Prior to initiating CPR on an apneic, hypothermic patient, you should:
Select one:
A. provide two minutes of rescue breathing.
B. assess the carotid pulse for up to 45 seconds.
C. analyze the patient's cardiac rhythm with an AED.
D. administer a 20 mL/kg

B. assess the carotid pulse for up to 45 seconds.

You are dispatched to a local golf course, where 3 people were struck by lightning. After ensuring your own safety, you begin triaging the patients. The first patient is conscious and has an apparent closed femur fracture. The second patient is conscious,

B. the other patients are less likely to develop cardiac arrest.

A 30-year-old female presents with signs of dehydration, generalized weakness, and cool, clammy skin. She is conscious and alert and has an oral temperature of 101.5�F. This clinical presentation is MOST consistent with:
Select one:
A. heatstroke.
B. heat

D. heat exhaustion.

When treating a diver who complains of severe pain to his joints and abdomen after returning to the surface of the water, you should manage his airway accordingly and position him:
Select one:
A. in a semi-Fowler's position.
B. on his left side with his h

B. on his left side with his head down.

When transporting a moderately hypothermic patient, you must avoid unnecessary bumps in the road. Not doing so may result in:
Select one:
A. respiratory failure.
B. a cardiac arrhythmia.
C. increased patient discomfort.
D. fractures of frozen extremities

B. a cardiac arrhythmia.

When rapidly cooling a semiconscious patient with heatstroke, you must stop the cooling process if the patient:
Select one:
A. becomes unresponsive.
B. begins to shiver.
C. becomes more alert.
D. develops tachycardia.

B. begins to shiver.

Which of the following individuals would be at GREATEST risk for developing hypothermia?
Select one:
A. A 39-year-old female with hyperthyroidism
B. A 45-year-old male with controlled hypertension
C. A 57-year-old male with progressive hyperglycemia
D. A

D. A 68-year-old female with a generalized infection

Signs of an impending lightning strike include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Select one:
A. tingling in the hands.
B. sudden tachycardia
C. hair standing on end.
D. parasthesia in the feet.

B. sudden tachycardia

Shivering, which is a natural response of the body to cold temperatures, serves to:
Select one:
A. decrease the basal metabolic rate.
B. facilitate the process of thermolysis.
C. inhibit the process of thermogenesis.
D. increase the rate of cellular metab

D. increase the rate of cellular metabolism.

A young male is wearing lightweight clothing and is standing outside in windy winter weather. He is losing heat to the environment mostly by:
Select one:
A. radiation.
B. conduction.
C. convection.
D. evaporation.

C. convection.

Hyperthermia occurs when:
Select one:
A. the core body temperature rises above 100�F.
B. a person is briefly exposed to high temperatures.
C. inadequate thermolysis causes reduced heat loss.
D. vasodilation shunts warm blood to the body's core.

C. inadequate thermolysis causes reduced heat loss.

Which of the following statements regarding scorpion stings is correct?
Select one:
A. All species of scorpion secrete venom, which produces a severe systemic reaction that causes cardiopulmonary collapse.
B. The Centruroides sculpturatus is the most comm

D. With the exception of one particular species of scorpion, most scorpion stings cause severe pain and swelling, but are not dangerous.

A 40-year-old female, who is conscious and alert with mild hypothermia, should receive active external rewarming. This involves:
Select one:
A. wrapping her in blankets and lavaging her urinary bladder.
B. infusing an isotonic crystalloid that is warmed t

D. wrapping her in blankets and applying heat packs to her groin.

Mild hypothermia is characterized by:
Select one:
A. bradycardia, bradypnea, and loss of muscle coordination.
B. shivering, tachypnea, and peripheral vascular constriction.
C. unresponsiveness, a weak pulse, and cardiac arrhythmias.
D. bradycardia, loss o

B. shivering, tachypnea, and peripheral vascular constriction.

A 24-year-old male was pulled from the water following submersion for an unknown length of time. There were no witnesses to the patient's submersion. When you arrive at the scene, you determine that he is in cardiac arrest. Routine management for this pat

C. subdiaphragmatic thrusts.

Compared to classic heatstroke, exertional heatstroke commonly presents with:
Select one:
A. hot, dry skin.
B. altered behavior.
C. moist, pale skin.
D. a weak, rapid pulse.

C. moist, pale skin.

Patients who are struck by lightning rarely sustain full-thickness burns because:
Select one:
A. the duration of the lightning strike is short.
B. the skin is an effective barrier to electricity.
C. damage occurs through the skin and not across it.
D. mos

A. the duration of the lightning strike is short.

When treating an unconscious, breathing patient with moderate to severe hypothermia, you must avoid rough handling in order to avoid inducing:
Select one:
A. asystole.
B. respiratory arrest.
C. ventricular fibrillation.
D. paradoxical hyperthermia.

C. ventricular fibrillation.

Heatstroke occurs when the:
Select one:
A. hypothalamus produces excessive body heat.
B. patient's core body temperature gradually rises.
C. process of thermogenesis is rendered ineffective.
D. body is subjected to more heat than it can remove.

D. body is subjected to more heat than it can remove.

A 45-year-old hiker was lost in the woods for approximately 24 hours. When he is rescued, you find that he is unresponsive; has profoundly slow respirations; and a weak, irregular pulse. This clinical presentation is MOST suggestive of a core body tempera

C. 80�F to 88�F.

Severe, persistent pain caused by a jellyfish sting should be treated by:
Select one:
A. washing the affected area with rubbing alcohol.
B. removing the nematocysts with a pair of tweezers.
C. immersing the affected area in hot water for 30 minutes.
D. ir

C. immersing the affected area in hot water for 30 minutes.

While stacking wood on a woodpile, a 60-year-old male experienced immediate, severe pain on the back of his hand. He complains of abdominal pain, nausea, and dizziness. Your assessment reveals that he is conscious and alert, but has an extremely rigid abd

B. black widow spider bite.

The signs and symptoms of Lyme disease resulting from a tick bite are MOST commonly confused with:
Select one:
A. acute peritonitis.
B. rheumatoid arthritis.
C. an allergic reaction.
D. acute ischemic stroke.

B. rheumatoid arthritis.

Which of the following clinical signs would indicate a core body temperature of between 89�F and 92�F?
Select one:
A. Shivering
B. Tachycardia
C. Bradycardia
D. Arrhythmias

A. Shivering

A frostbitten extremity should never be rewarmed if:
Select one:
A. blisters have already began to form.
B. it is developing signs of gangrene.
C. transport to the hospital is delayed.
D. there is a chance that it may refreeze.

D. there is a chance that it may refreeze.

You are dispatched to a ski resort for a 21-year-old female with a local cold injury to her hand. Upon making contact with the patient, your MOST immediate action should be to:
Select one:
A. apply 100% supplemental oxygen.
B. remove any constricting jewe

D. move her to a warmer environment.

Which of the following would be the LEAST reliable assessment parameter or treatment tool for a patient with significant hypothermia?
Select one:
A. AED
B. Pulse rate
C. Respiratory rate
D. Pulse oximetry

D. Pulse oximetry

The two MOST effective mechanisms for thermolysis are:
Select one:
A. sweating and peripheral vasodilation.
B. removing clothing and sweating heavily.
C. tachycardia and peripheral vasodilation.
D. peripheral vasoconstriction and tachypnea.

A. sweating and peripheral vasodilation.

When assessing the skin temperature of a patient with a cold-related emergency, you should feel the skin closest to the core of the body because

the patient may be hemodynamically stable even if his or her extremities are cold.

Joints are bathed and lubricated by:

synovial fluid.

Goals of in-line traction for musculoskeletal injuries in the prehospital setting include all of the following, EXCEPT:

reduction of the fracture.

Testicular torsion is a/an:

time-sensitive injury and requires rapid transport.

Which of the following individuals would be at GREATEST risk for developing hypothermia?

A 68-year-old female with a generalized infection

Pathologic fractures are typically caused by all of the following, EXCEPT:

previous fractures

A 55-year-old male fell from the roof of his house and sustained a closed, displaced femur fracture. He is restless, diaphoretic, and tachycardic. After appropriately managing his ABCs and performing a rapid head-to-toe assessment, you should:

immobilize him on a long backboard, transport, and start a large-bore IV en route.

When assessing the pelvis of a patient with multiple systems trauma, you should:

apply gentle inward pressure to the iliac crests.

When assessing a patient with multiple systems trauma, which of the following musculoskeletal injuries would pose the GREATEST threat to the patient's life?

Multiple open fractures

A 30-year-old male fell while rollerblading and landed on his right arm. There is obvious deformity to the elbow and the patient complains of severe pain. The patient's hand is cool and pale and his radial pulse is difficult to palpate. The hospital is ap

. splint the arm in the position found and then transport immediately.

Signs of a ruptured urinary bladder include all of the following, EXCEPT:

hematemesis.

You have applied an air splint to the deformed forearm of a critically injured patient while waiting for a helicopter to arrive. When the helicopter arrives, the flight medic asks you to accompany the patient. During the flight, you should:

monitor the splint and let air out as needed.

Hyperthermia occurs when:

inadequate thermolysis causes reduced heat loss.

In the process of applying a splint on a 21-year-old female with an apparent dislocated patella, the patella spontaneously returns to its normal position. You should:

immobilize her knee with a long board splint.

Which of the following types of medications would increase a person's risk of developing a heat-related illness?

Antihistamines

Patients with a significant abdominal injury:

have increased pain with movement.

Which of the following statements regarding hypothermia is correct?

Decreased thyroid gland function predisposes a person to hypothermia.

During a football game, a 16-year-old male was "speared" in the right flank by another player. This mechanism of injury is MOST suggestive of injury to the:

kidney.

A 21-year-old male presents with a severely angulated forearm and extreme pain. Distal sensory, motor, and circulatory functions are intact. You should:

splint the forearm in the position of deformity.

A frostbitten extremity is usually

hard and waxy.

A 59-year-old male patient impacted the dashboard with his knees when his car struck a tree at 50 mph. During your primary assessment, you note bleeding from an obvious open femur fracture. After controlling the bleeding, applying oxygen, and extricating

perform a head-to-toe assessment, immobilize his spine, and transport.

Which of the following organs lie in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen?

Liver and gallbladder

When assessing a patient who has fractured his or her midshaft clavicle, you should expect to find swelling, point tenderness, and:

distal neurovascular deficit.

Gangrene and subsequent amputation of a frostbitten extremity will MOST likely occur if it:

is rewarmed and then refreezes.

Which of the following muscles is attached to the skeleton and forms the bulk of tissue of the arms and legs?

Skeletal

Which of the following describes an injury caused by indirect force?

A fall on an outstretched hand with a fractured wrist and a dislocated elbow

A 56-year-old male caught the foreskin of his penis in a long segment of the zipper of his pants. He is in extreme pain, his blood pressure is 150/88 mm Hg, his pulse rate is 120 beats/min and strong, and his respirations are 22 breaths/min with adequate

carefully cut the zipper out of the pants, control any bleeding, and transport.

Which of the following would be the LEAST reliable assessment parameter or treatment tool for a patient with significant hypothermia?

Pulse oximetry

Which of the following patients has signs and symptoms that are MOST indicative of heatstroke?

A 31-year-old male with hot and moist skin, tachycardia, and confusion

You are dispatched to a ski resort for a 21-year-old female with a local cold injury to her hand. Upon making contact with the patient, your MOST immediate action should be to:

remove any constricting jewelry.

Which of the following patients is LEAST prone to a local cold injury?

A 45-year-old male with hypertension

When the core body temperature falls below 95�F, the patient's:

ability to regulate body temperature is lost.

Following blunt force trauma to the elbow, a 40-year-old female complains of severe pain and the feeling that her elbow is "locked". Your assessment reveals marked deformity and swelling. This patient has MOST likely experienced a/an:

dislocation.

When assessing a 14-year-old male with an injured arm, you note gross deformity just distal to the elbow. Distal neurovascular functions are grossly intact. You should

assume that growth plate damage has occurred

The primary reason for applying gentle longitudinal traction to a severely angulated tibia is to:

ensure that distal pulses remain intact.

In addition to causing local tissue destruction, the venom from a pit viper also causes:

spontaneous bleeding due to interference with the blood-clotting mechanisms

Signs of an impending lightning strike include all of the following, EXCEPT:

sudden tachycardia

Which of the following statements regarding decompression sickness is MOST correct?

Treatment at a recompression facility is a crucial treatment.

A 38-year-old female sustained a high-velocity injury to her pelvis. Your assessment reveals severe pain and crepitation upon palpation of the iliac crests. Her blood pressure is 84/54 mm Hg, pulse is 120 and weak, and respirations are 26 breaths/min and

immobilizing her spine, applying a pelvic binder device, transporting, and administering 20 mL/kg normal saline boluses en route.

When palpating an injured extremity, a patient complains of point tenderness. On the basis of this clinical finding, you:

are unable to determine the type of fracture.

Which of the following seatbelt positions will MOST likely result in severe intraabdominal injuries when a vehicle suddenly decelerates?

Shoulder harness and lap belt placed superior to the iliac crest

An 80-year-old male tripped and fell and complains of pain to his left hip. Your assessment reveals that his knee is flexed and his left leg is shortened and medially rotated. Distal neurovascular functions are grossly intact. You should immobilize this p

placing him on a scoop stretcher and padding the injury with pillows

The two MOST effective mechanisms for thermolysis are:

sweating and peripheral vasodilation.

A 40-year-old female, who is conscious and alert with mild hypothermia, should receive active external rewarming. This involves:

wrapping her in blankets and applying heat packs to her groin.

A 21-year-old male presents with a severely angulated forearm and extreme pain. Distal sensory, motor, and circulatory functions are intact. You should

splint the forearm in the position of deformity.

You arrive at the scene of a motor-vehicle crash in which a 30-year-old male was ejected from his truck. As you approach the patient, who is not moving, you can see that he has gross deformity to both of his femurs and an angulated left humerus. You shoul

stabilize his head and open his airway

When assessing a patient with a scapular fracture, you should also be alert for:

ribs fractures and a pneumothorax.

A 24-year-old male was pulled from the water following submersion for an unknown length of time. There were no witnesses to the patient's submersion. When you arrive at the scene, you determine that he is in cardiac arrest. Routine management for this pat

subdiaphragmatic thrusts.

If your assessment of a patient with a possible musculoskeletal injury reveals no external signs of injury, it would be appropriate to:

ask the patient to move each extremity carefully.

Palpating for a pulse in a near-drowning victim may be difficult to assess because:

the peripheral vessels are constricted and cardiac output is low.

Tough, cord-like structures that are extensions of the fascia covering all skeletal muscles are known as:

tendons

Internal heat production is called:

thermogenesis.

When transporting a moderately hypothermic patient, you must avoid unnecessary bumps in the road. Not doing so may result in:

a cardiac arrhythmia.

A 29-year-old male was struck in the upper back by a solid object. During your assessment, you note ecchymosis, pain, and crepitus to the left scapula. His blood pressure is 124/68 mm Hg, pulse is 110 and strong, and respirations are 24 breaths/min and la

be alert for intrathoracic injuries.

In which of the following situations would it NOT be appropriate to splint a patient's fractures before moving him or her?

Confused patient with tachycardia and shallow breathing

Breath-holding syncope" commonly occurs when a swimmer:

breathes deeply and rapidly before entering the water.

Which of the following statements regarding hypothermia is correct?

Decreased thyroid gland function predisposes a person to hypothermia.

You are dispatched to the residence of an 80-year-old female with a possible heat-related emergency. Your assessment reveals that she is semiconscious, has hot and dry skin, and signs of severe dehydration. You should:

move her to a cooler environment.

You have delivered your patient, a 14-year-old female with a possible femur fracture, to the emergency department. After radiographic evaluation, the physician tells you that the patient has a comminuted fracture. This means that the femur:

. has fractured into more than two fragments.

When assessing a 40-year-old female with an injury to her left wrist, you should recall that the MOST reliable indicator of an underlying fracture is

point tenderness

A 56-year-old male caught the foreskin of his penis in a long segment of the zipper of his pants. He is in extreme pain, his blood pressure is 150/88 mm Hg, his pulse rate is 120 beats/min and strong, and his respirations are 22 breaths/min with adequate

carefully cut the zipper out of the pants, control any bleeding, and transport.

A patient with a displaced fracture of the proximal femur typically presents with

external leg rotation, with the injured leg shorter than the opposite leg.

Patients who are struck by lightning rarely sustain full-thickness burns because:

the duration of the lightning strike is short.

In addition to splinting the injured extremity, appropriate management for a patient with suspected compartment syndrome includes:

keeping the limb at the level of the heart, transporting, and frequently assessing distal pulses

Fractures of the proximal femur MOST commonly occur at the:

intertrochanteric region of the femur.

The body loses heat to the environment through a process called:

thermolysis

Which of the following medications or medical devices may inhibit the body's tachycardic response during shock?

Beta-blocker

Lethal cardiac dysrhythmias, such as ventricular fibrillation, may occur in the hypothermic patient if he or she:

is rewarmed too quickly.

In addition to providing the framework for the human body, bones also:

. produce blood cells in the marrow.

In the absence of obvious external trauma, an abdominal injury would be MOST difficult to assess for in a/an:

unresponsive patient.

Which of the following injuries MOST accurately depicts an open fracture?

Swelling and deformity to the lateral humerus with an overlying abrasion

Kehr sign is defined as:

referred pain to the shoulder following injury to the liver or spleen

Which of the following mechanisms of injury would MOST likely cause a shearing injury of the bladder from the urethra in a male?

Motorcycle crash

Breath-holding syncope" commonly occurs when a swimmer:

breathes deeply and rapidly before entering the water

Which of the following abdominal organs would cause the MOST profuse bleeding when severely injured?

Liver

A 38-year-old female sustained a high-velocity injury to her pelvis. Your assessment reveals severe pain and crepitation upon palpation of the iliac crests. Her blood pressure is 84/54 mm Hg, pulse is 120 and weak, and respirations are 26 breaths/min and

immobilizing her spine, applying a pelvic binder device, transporting, and administering 20 mL/kg normal saline boluses en route.

Which of the following organs lie in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen?

Liver and gallbladder

When assessing the skin temperature of a patient with a cold-related emergency, you should feel the skin closest to the core of the body because:

the patient may be hemodynamically stable even if his or her extremities are cold.

Compared to classic heatstroke, exertional heatstroke commonly presents with:

moist, pale skin

To align a severe deformity associated with a humeral shaft fracture, you should:

support the fracture site with one hand and apply gentle traction by grasping the humeral condyles

Which of the following seatbelt positions will MOST likely result in severe intraabdominal injuries when a vehicle suddenly decelerates?

Shoulder harness and lap belt placed superior to the iliac crest

In addition to controlling bleeding and immobilizing the spine as needed, appropriate care for a patient with a penetrating abdominal wound and signs of shock includes

ensuring adequate ventilation, maintaining adequate perfusion with IV fluids, and transporting to the most appropriate facility

Which of the following is the MOST effective method of immobilizing a fractured clavicle?

Sling and swathe

Which of the following statements regarding the brown recluse spider is correct?

Its venom is cytotoxic and causes severe local tissue destruction.

The MOST accurate definition of a fracture is a:

break in the continuity of a bone

Which of the following is the MOST reliable means of assessing the potential for abdominal injuries following a motor-vehicle crash?

Lifting a deployed airbag and assessing the steering wheel

The energy needed for muscular contraction is derived from the metabolism of ___________ and results in the production of:

glucose; lactic acid.

Articular cartilage functions by:

covering the bone ends and cushioning them from damage and wear.

Severe, persistent pain caused by a jellyfish sting should be treated by:

immersing the affected area in hot water for 30 minutes.

You are assessing a 24-year-old male who was bitten by a rattlesnake while hiking in the woods. Which of the following clinical signs would be MOST indicative of envenomation?

Progressive tissue swelling

Shortly after returning to the surface of the water, a scuba diver experiences an acute onset of pleuritic chest pain and difficulty breathing. He is tachycardic and his pulse is irregular. You should suspect:

air embolism

A patient with a core body temperature of 85�F would be expected to present with:

profoundly slow respirations

A 29-year-old male fell approximately 5 feet from a ladder and landed on his right shoulder. He is conscious and alert, denies loss of consciousness, and complains of pain to the shoulder. His vital signs are stable. You should:

manually stabilize the injury until it is splinted, perform a secondary assessment, splint the injury appropriately, and transport.

A 25-year-old male experienced blunt abdominal trauma and is developing shock. Which of the following signs would you expect to manifest late?

Hypotension

You should assess a patient with systemic hypothermia for local cold injuries to the extremities because:

blood is shunted away from the extremities

When assessing a patient with a grossly deformed humerus, you note that the radial pulse is absent and the extremity is becoming cyanotic. You should:

use constant, gentle manual traction to align the humerus.

Which of the following individuals would be at GREATEST risk for developing hypothermia?

A 68-year-old female with a generalized infection

Mild hypothermia is characterized by:

shivering, tachypnea, and peripheral vascular constriction

How could the mammalian diving reflex protect the hypothermic patient who was submerged in water?

It slows the metabolic rate and decreases the body's oxygen demand.

The presence of gastric juices and bacteria in the abdominal cavity causes an intense inflammatory reaction called:

peritonitis.

In addition to controlling bleeding and immobilizing the spine as needed, appropriate care for a patient with a penetrating abdominal wound and signs of shock includes:

ensuring adequate ventilation, maintaining adequate perfusion with IV fluids, and transporting to the most appropriate facility.

A young male is wearing lightweight clothing and is standing outside in windy winter weather. He is losing heat to the environment mostly by

convection.

A Colles fracture is caused by injury to the

distal radius.

A 44-year-old male was bitten by a black widow spider. He is conscious and alert, complains of nausea, and has a tense, painful abdomen. His blood pressure is 150/94 mm Hg, pulse is 110 beats/min and strong, and respirations are 24 breaths/min and unlabor

clean the bite with soap and water, apply ice to the area, and transport.

Proximal humeral fractures MOST commonly occur:

in the elderly population.

When a warm hand touches a cold object, heat passes directly from the body to the colder object. This is an example of:

. conduction.

Because heat always travels from a warm object to a cooler one, a person standing in a cold room will lose heat by:

radiation.

Which of the following would be the LEAST reliable assessment parameter when determining the neurovascular status of a patient with a possible extremity fracture?

Distal sensory function

A frostbitten extremity is usually:
Select one:
a. flushed or pale.
b. hard and waxy.
c. extremely painful.
d. soft and cyanotic.

b. hard and waxy.

A frostbitten extremity should never be rewarmed if:
Select one:
a. it is developing signs of gangrene.
b. blisters have already began to form.
c. there is a chance that it may refreeze.
d. transport to the hospital is delayed.

c. there is a chance that it may refreeze.

An individual is considered to be hypothermic when his or her core body temperature falls below:
Select one:
a. 95�F.
b. 85�F.
c. 90�F.
d. 97�F.

a. 95�F.

Heatstroke occurs when the:
Select one:
a. hypothalamus produces excessive body heat.
b. process of thermogenesis is rendered ineffective.
c. patient's core body temperature gradually rises.
d. body is subjected to more heat than it can remove.

d. body is subjected to more heat than it can remove.

Hyperthermia occurs when:
Select one:
a. vasodilation shunts warm blood to the body's core.
b. a person is briefly exposed to high temperatures.
c. inadequate thermolysis causes reduced heat loss.
d. the core body temperature rises above 100�F.
Check

c. inadequate thermolysis causes reduced heat loss.

Mild hypothermia is characterized by:
Select one:
a. shivering, tachypnea, and peripheral vascular constriction.
b. bradycardia, bradypnea, and loss of muscle coordination.
c. bradycardia, loss of muscle coordination, and confusion.
d. unresponsiveness, a

a. shivering, tachypnea, and peripheral vascular constriction.

The body loses heat to the environment through a process called:
Select one:
a. thermolysis.
b. thermogenesis.
c. radiation.
d. evaporation.

a. thermolysis.

The signs and symptoms of Lyme disease resulting from a tick bite are MOST commonly confused with:
Select one:
a. rheumatoid arthritis.
b. an allergic reaction.
c. acute peritonitis.
d. acute ischemic stroke.

a. rheumatoid arthritis.

When a warm hand touches a cold object, heat passes directly from the body to the colder object. This is an example of:
Select one:
a. convection.
b. evaporation.
c. radiation.
d. conduction.

d. conduction.

When assessing a patient with a heat-related emergency, which of the following clinical signs would indicate thermolytic inadequacy?
Select one:
a. Altered mental status
b. Tachycardia and hypertension
c. Profuse sweating
d. Increased respirations

a. Altered mental status

Breath-holding syncope" commonly occurs when a swimmer:
Select one:
a. holds his or her breath before entering the water.
b. breathes deeply and rapidly before entering the water.
c. rapidly ascends while holding his or her breath.
d. holds his or her br

b. breathes deeply and rapidly before entering the water.

A 40-year-old female, who is conscious and alert with mild hypothermia, should receive active external rewarming. This involves:
Select one:
a. wrapping her in blankets and lavaging her urinary bladder.
b. infusing an isotonic crystalloid that is warmed t

d. wrapping her in blankets and applying heat packs to her groin.

A 45-year-old hiker was lost in the woods for approximately 24 hours. When he is rescued, you find that he is unresponsive; has profoundly slow respirations; and a weak, irregular pulse. This clinical presentation is MOST suggestive of a core body tempera

a. 93�F to 95�F.

Compared to classic heatstroke, exertional heatstroke commonly presents with:
Select one:
a. hot, dry skin.
b. altered behavior.
c. moist, pale skin.
d. a weak, rapid pulse.

c. moist, pale skin.

General management for a moderately hypothermic patient with a decreased level of consciousness may include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Select one:
a. active internal rewarming.
b. passive external rewarming.
c. obtaining a rectal temperature.
d. assist

a. active internal rewarming.

Heat cramps are typically the result of prolonged exposure to a hot environment, resulting in:
Select one:
a. electrolyte depletion and severe muscle spasms.
b. painful spasms in the muscles of the upper body.
c. significant volume depletion and hypovolem

a. electrolyte depletion and severe muscle spasms.

Heatstroke occurs when the:
Select one:
a. hypothalamus produces excessive body heat.
b. patient's core body temperature gradually rises.
c. process of thermogenesis is rendered ineffective.
d. body is subjected to more heat than it can remove.

d. body is subjected to more heat than it can remove.

How could the mammalian diving reflex protect the hypothermic patient who was submerged in water?
Select one:
a. It increases metabolism and shunts blood to the brain and lungs.
b. It markedly increases the heart rate and increases oxygen supply.
c. It sl

Not B or D

In a cold environment, most of a person's body heat is lost:
Select one:
a. from the head and neck areas.
b. when he or she begins shivering.
c. when the respiratory rate increases.
d. through the evaporative process.

Not C or D

Lethal cardiac dysrhythmias, such as ventricular fibrillation, may occur in the hypothermic patient if he or she:
Select one:
a. is passively rewarmed.
b. is rewarmed too quickly.
c. has an elevated blood pressure.
d. takes anticoagulant medications.

b. is rewarmed too quickly.

Palpating for a pulse in a near-drowning victim may be difficult to assess because:
Select one:
a. the majority of near-drowning victims are in cardiac arrest.
b. the peripheral vessels are constricted and cardiac output is low.
c. accompanying hypoxia ca

b. the peripheral vessels are constricted and cardiac output is low.

Patients who are struck by lightning rarely sustain full-thickness burns because:
Select one:
a. the duration of the lightning strike is short.
b. the skin is an effective barrier to electricity.
c. damage occurs through the skin and not across it.
d. mos

a. the duration of the lightning strike is short.

Shivering, which is a natural response of the body to cold temperatures, serves to:
Select one:
a. decrease the basal metabolic rate.
b. facilitate the process of thermolysis.
c. inhibit the process of thermogenesis.
d. increase the rate of cellular metab

d. increase the rate of cellular metabolism

Shortly after returning to the surface of the water, a scuba diver experiences an acute onset of pleuritic chest pain and difficulty breathing. He is tachycardic and his pulse is irregular. You should suspect:
Select one:
a. air embolism.
b. acute nitroge

Not C or D

Signs of an impending lightning strike include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Select one:
a. tingling in the hands.
b. sudden tachycardia.
c. hair standing on end.
d. parasthesia in the feet.

b. sudden tachycardia.

When the core body temperature falls below 95�F, the patient's:
Select one:
a. ability to regulate body temperature is lost.
b. heart rate slows in order to produce body heat.
c. blood vessels dilate in order to conserve heat.
d. shivering mechanism is ma

a. ability to regulate body temperature is lost.

When treating an unconscious, breathing patient with moderate to severe hypothermia, you must avoid rough handling in order to avoid inducing:
Select one:
a. asystole.
b. respiratory arrest.
c. ventricular fibrillation.
d. paradoxical hyperthermia.

c. ventricular fibrillation.

Which of the following is a physiologic abnormality that occurs as a result of hypothermia?
Select one:
a. Increased metabolic rate
b. Abnormal blood clotting
c. Increased thermogenesis
d. Decreased cardiac irritability

Not A or D

Which of the following joints allows no motion?

skull sutures

When assessing a patient with a possible fracture of the leg, the EMT should:

compare it to the uninjured leg.

The pectoral girdle consists of the:

scapulae and clavicles.

Common signs and symptoms of a sprain include all of the following, EXCEPT:

deformity.

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sprain

An open fracture is MOST accurately defined as a fracture in which:

the overlying skin is no longer intact.

Which of the following types of muscle is under direct voluntary control of the brain?

skeletal

A "hip" fracture is actually a fracture of the:

proximal femur.

A 45-year-old female was the unrestrained passenger of a small car that rear-ended another vehicle at a moderate rate of speed. She is conscious and alert, but complains of pain to both of her knees. There is visible damage to the dashboard on the passeng

posterior hip dislocation.

Which of the following structures is regulated by smooth muscle?

blood vessels

A 22-year-old female was ejected from her car after striking a tree head-on. As you approach her, you note obvious closed deformities to both of her femurs. She is not moving and does not appear to be conscious. You should:

stabilize her head and perform a primary assessment.

A 17-year-old football player collided with another player and has pain to his left clavicular area. He is holding his arm against his chest and refuses to move it. Your assessment reveals obvious deformity to the midshaft clavicle. After assessing distal

immobilize the injury with a sling and swathe.

The primary purpose for splinting a musculoskeletal injury is to:

prevent further injury.

The MOST commonly fractured bone(s) in the body is the:

clavicle.

In which of the following situations should the EMT splint an injured limb in the position of deformity?

if resistance is encountered or the patient experiences severe pain

Which of the following scenarios is an example of a direct injury?

A passenger fractures her patella after it strikes the dashboard.

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compare it to the uninjured leg.

During your rapid secondary assessment of a 19-year-old female with multiple trauma,
you note bilateral humeral deformities and a deformity to the left midshaft femur. Her skin is diaphoretic and her pulse is rapid and weak. Your partner has appropriately

immobilizing her to a backboard and rapidly transporting.

Which of the following musculoskeletal injuries would pose the greatest threat to a patient's life?

pelvic fracture with hypotension

Which of the following statements regarding striated muscle is correct?

It forms the major muscle mass of the body and usually crosses at least one joint.

Which of the following musculoskeletal injuries would MOST likely result in deformity?

displaced fracture

In moving joints, the ends of the bones are covered with:

articular cartilage.

A 76-year-old male experienced sudden pain to his left thigh when he was standing in line at the grocery store. Your assessment reveals ecchymosis and deformity to the distal aspect of his left femur, just above the knee. Distal circulation and sensory an

applying padded board splints to both sides of the leg.

The disruption of a joint in which the bone ends are no longer in contact is called a:

dislocation.

The act of pulling on a body structure in the direction of its normal alignment is called:

traction.

The MOST common and significant complication associated with fractures or dislocations of the knee is:

ligament and cartilage damage.

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immobilize the injury with a sling and swathe.

The PASG is absolutely contraindicated in patients who have:

pulmonary edema.

The MOST reliable indicator of an underlying fracture is:

point tenderness.

A 54-year-old male accidentally shot himself in the leg while cleaning his gun. Your
assessment reveals a small entrance wound to the medial aspect of his right leg. The exit wound is on the opposite side of the leg and is actively bleeding. The patient c

control the bleeding and cover the wound with a sterile dressing.

When splinting a possible fracture of the foot, it is MOST important for the EMT to:

leave the toes exposed.

Which of the following statements regarding compartment syndrome is correct?

Compartment syndrome typically develops within 6 to 12 hours after an injury.

What type of muscle contracts and relaxes to control the movement of the contents within its structures?

smooth

Deformity caused by a fracture would MOST likely be masked by:

swelling.

A 21-year-old male was thrown over the handlebars of his motorcycle when he rear- ended a car that was stopped at a red light. He was wearing a helmet, which he removed prior to your arrival. He is conscious, but restless, and has closed deformities to bo

bind his legs together on the backboard, keep him warm, and transport without delay.

Traction splints are used primarily to immobilize and secure fractures of the:

femur.

A supracondylar or intercondylar fracture is also known as a fracture of the:

distal humerus.

A subluxation occurs when

a joint is incompletely dislocated.

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scapulae and clavicles.

During your assessment of a 29-year-old female with significant deformity to her left
elbow, you are unable to palpate a radial pulse. Your transport time to the hospital is approximately 40 minutes. You should:

apply gentle manual traction in line with the limb and reassess for a pulse.

When caring for a patient with a possible fracture of the scapula, the EMT should:

carefully assess the patient for breathing problems.

During your rapid secondary assessment of a 30-year-old male who fell 25?, you note crepitus when palpating his pelvis. Your partner advises you that the patient's blood pressure is 80/50 mm Hg and his heart rate is 120 beats/min and weak. After completin

stabilize the pelvis with a pelvic binder and protect the spine.

Bones are connected to other bones by bands of tough fibrous tissues called:

ligaments.

A ____________ is a musculoskeletal injury in which there is partial or temporary separation of the bone ends as well as partial stretching or tearing of the supporting ligaments.

sprain

Crepitus and false motion are

positive indicators of a fracture.

If a dislocated shoulder has spontaneously reduced before your arrival, the only way to confirm the injury is by noting

the patient history.

The musculoskeletal system refers to the:

bones and voluntary muscles of the body.

Assessing a person's neurovascular status following a musculoskeletal injury includes all of the following, EXCEPT:

evaluating proximal pulses.

If a dislocated shoulder has spontaneously reduced before your arrival, the only way to
confirm the injury is by noting:

the patient history.

A fracture is MOST accurately defined as a(n

break in the continuity of the bone.

In general, musculoskeletal injuries should be splinted before moving the patient unless:

the patient is clinically unstable.

You receive a call to a local gymnasium for a basketball player with a dislocated shoulder. Upon arrival, you find the patient, a 17-year-old male, sitting on the ground. He is holding his left arm in a fixed position away from his body. There is an obvio

assess distal pulse, motor, and sensory functions.

Skeletal muscle is also referred to as __________ muscle.

striated

A person who experiences a calcaneus fracture after jumping and landing on his or her feet would MOST likely experience an accompanying fracture of the

lumbar spine.

Applying ice to and elevating an injured extremity are performed in order to:

reduce pain and swelling.

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proximal femur.

You and your partner are applying a Hare traction splint to a patient with a deformed midshaft femur. As you expose the injured femur and assess neurovascular functions, your partner should:
A. elevate the leg and apply an ankle hitch.
B. measure the spli

C. manually support and stabilize the injured leg

When assessing the pelvis of a patient with multiple systems trauma, you should:
A. gently rock the pelvis back and forth.
B. percuss the pubic symphysis to elicit pain.
C. apply gentle inward pressure to the iliac crests.
D. avoid palpation due to the po

C. apply gentle inward pressure to the iliac crests

You have applied an air splint to the deformed forearm of a critically injured patient while waiting for a helicopter to arrive. When the helicopter arrives, the flight medic asks you to accompany the patient. During the flight, you should:
A. remove the

D. monitor the splint and let air out as needed

A major benefit of using a Sager traction splint is that it:
A. immobilizes the limb by producing countertraction.
B. can be applied effectively by one AEMT if necessary.
C. allows you to bind the injured leg to the uninjured leg.

Can be applied effectively by one AEMT if necessary.

In the process of applying a splint on a 21-year-old female with an apparent dislocated patella, the patella spontaneously returns to its normal position. You should:
A. allow her to drive herself to the hospital.
B. apply the PASG and inflate the leg sec

...

On which of the following injuries would it be MOST appropriate to apply a traction splint?
A. Pain and crepitus upon palpation of the pelvis
B. Posterior bulge of the hip with intact circulation
C. Swelling and ecchymosis to the midshaft femur
D. Deformi

C. Swelling and ecchymosis to the midshaft femur

Tough, cord-like structures that are extensions of the fascia covering all skeletal muscles are known as:
A. menisci.
B. tendons.
C. ligaments.
D. cartilage.

B. tendons

A 29-year-old male was struck in the upper back by a solid object. During your assessment, you note ecchymosis, pain, and crepitus to the left scapula. His blood pressure is 124/68 mm Hg, pulse is 110 and strong, and respirations are 24 breaths/min and la

A. be alert for intrathoracic injuries

You arrive at the scene of a motor-vehicle crash in which a 30-year-old male was ejected from his truck. As you approach the patient, who is not moving, you can see that he has gross deformity to both of his femurs and an angulated left humerus. You shoul

C. stabilize his head and open his airway

You have delivered your patient, a 14-year-old female with a possible femur fracture, to the emergency department. After radiographic evaluation, the physician tells you that the patient has a comminuted fracture. This means that the femur:
A. has fractur

A. has fractured into more than two fragments

When assessing a patient with multiple systems trauma, which of the following musculoskeletal injuries would pose the GREATEST threat to the patient's life?
A. Multiple open fractures
B. Dislocation of a major joint
C. Single open long bone fracture
D. Di

A. Multiple open fractures

A fracture that occurs in the growth section of a child's bone, which may lead to bone growth abnormalities, is called a/an __________________ fracture.
A. diaphyseal
B. metaphyseal
C. epiphyseal

...

Proximal humeral fractures MOST commonly occur:
A. as a result of minor trauma.
B. in the pediatric population.
C. in the elderly population.
D. during stretching injuries.

C. in the elderly population

In addition to 100% oxygen, appropriate management for a patient with a suspected pelvic fracture, who is conscious and alert with stable vital signs includes:
A. application of a pelvic binder, immobilization on a long backboard, at least one large-bore

Application of a pelvic binder, immobilization on a long backboard, at least one large-bore IV set to keep the vein open, and transport

A 50-year-old male fell approximately 20 feet and landed on his side. He is conscious and alert and denies loss of consciousness. During your assessment, you note pain and crepitus when palpating the iliac crests. In addition to the potential for spinal i

A. internal hemorrhaging

Which of the following is the MOST effective method of immobilizing a fractured clavicle?
A. Sling and swathe
B. Modified wrist sling
C. Short arm rigid splint
D. Pillow or other padding

A. Sling and swathe

An injury that may result in complete separation of a joint due to stretching or tearing of the supporting ligaments is called a:
A. sprain.
B. strain.
C. dislocation.
D. subluxation.

A. sprain

Decrease in the size of a muscle and its inherent ability to function is called:
A. atrophy.
B. myalgia.
C. cephalgia.
D. hypertrophy.

A. atrophy

A 29-year-old male fell approximately 5 feet from a ladder and landed on his right shoulder. He is conscious and alert, denies loss of consciousness, and complains of pain to the shoulder. His vital signs are stable. You should:
A. perform a rapid scan of

B. manually stabilize the injury until it is splinted, perform a secondary assessment, splint the injury appropriately, and transport

Which of the following statements regarding skeletal muscle is correct?
A. Most of the body's skeletal muscle is not under voluntary control.
B. Skeletal muscle is highly vascular and bleeds significantly when injured.
C. Skeletal muscle can only survive

Skeletal muscle is highly vascular and bleeds significantly when injured

Pathologic fractures are typically caused by all of the following, EXCEPT:
A. osteoporosis.
B. bone cancer.
C. previous fractures.
D. minor injury force.

C. previous fractures

A Colles fracture is caused by injury to the:
A. carpal bones.
B. distal radius.
C. proximal ulna.
D. midshaft forearm.

B. distal radius

An 80-year-old male tripped and fell and complains of pain to his left hip. Your assessment reveals that his knee is flexed and his left leg is shortened and medially rotated. Distal neurovascular functions are grossly intact. You should immobilize this p

C. placing him on a scoop stretcher and padding the injury with pillows

Goals of in-line traction for musculoskeletal injuries in the prehospital setting include all of the following, EXCEPT:
A. reduction of the fracture. Correct
B. stabilization of the fracture site.
C. alignment of the injured extremity.
D. avoiding neurova

D. avoiding neurovascular compromise

In addition to splinting the injured extremity, appropriate management for a patient with suspected compartment syndrome includes:
A. applying traction to the extremity, keeping it at the level of the heart, and transporting.
B. lowering the limb below th

D. keeping the limb at the level of the heart, transporting, and frequently assessing distal pulses

General principles of splinting an injured extremity include:
A. immobilizing the joint below a suspected fracture.
B. frequently assessing gross neurovascular functions.
C. immobilizing the bone above a suspected dislocation.
D. splinting all extremity i

B. frequently assessing gross neurovascular functions

A 55-year-old male fell from the roof of his house and sustained a closed, displaced femur fracture. He is restless, diaphoretic, and tachycardic. After appropriately managing his ABCs and performing a rapid head-to-toe assessment, you should:
A. apply a

B. immobilize him on a long backboard, transport, and start a large-bore IV en route

Which of the following statements regarding hip dislocations is correct?
A. Most hip dislocations are caused by posterior displacement of the femoral head.
B. Most hip dislocations are caused by anterior displacement of the femoral head.
C. Anterior hip d

A. Most hip dislocations are caused by posterior displacement of the femoral head

A 21-year-old male presents with a severely angulated forearm and extreme pain. Distal sensory, motor, and circulatory functions are intact. You should:
A. apply a zippered air splint to relieve the pain.
B. splint the forearm in the position of deformity

B. splint the forearm in the position of deformity

Which of the following musculoskeletal injuries poses the GREATEST risk for compartment syndrome?
A. Ankle fracture in an adult
B. Humeral fracture in a child
C. Hip fracture in an older adult
D. Wrist fracture in an adolescent

B. Humeral fracture in a child

Which of the following injuries would pose the LEAST threat to the patient?
A. Single open long bone fracture
B. Displaced fracture of the pelvis
C. Major sprains at a major joint

C. Major sprains at a major joint

Following blunt force trauma to the elbow, a 40-year-old female complains of severe pain and the feeling that her elbow is "locked". Your assessment reveals marked deformity and swelling. This patient has MOST likely experienced a/an:
A. fracture.
B. disl

B. dislocation

A 34-year-old male sustained a twisting injury to his left lower leg when he stepped into a hole. Your assessment reveals ecchymosis and pain to the area, but no deformity or crepitus. You should suspect a:
A. displaced fracture.
B. nondisplaced fracture.

B. nondisplaced fracture

A young female has a closed, unstable deformity to her left femur. In this situation, the primary reason for applying a splint is to:
A. relieve the patient's pain and anxiety.
B. prevent conversion to an open fracture.
C. minimize any bleeding within the

B. prevent conversion to an open fracture

When assessing a 14-year-old male with an injured arm, you note gross deformity just distal to the elbow. Distal neurovascular functions are grossly intact. You should:
A. apply a pediatric traction splint to the arm.
B. immobilize the injury with a sling

D. assume that growth plate damage has occurred

A 59-year-old male patient impacted the dashboard with his knees when his car struck a tree at 50 mph. During your primary assessment, you note bleeding from an obvious open femur fracture. After controlling the bleeding, applying oxygen, and extricating

B. perform a head-to-toe assessment, immobilize his spine, and transport

A 29-year-old male was involved in a rollover motor-vehicle crash. The patient was removed from his vehicle prior to your arrival. During your general impression, you note that he is conscious, yelling in pain, and has an actively bleeding open fracture o

B. apply direct pressure to his leg

A patient with developing compartment syndrome following a fracture typically complains of or presents with:
A. tension or pressure in the affected extremity.
B. extreme cyanosis to the affected extremity.
C. increased sensation distal to site of the inju

A. tension or pressure in the affected extremity

Fractures of the proximal femur MOST commonly occur at the:
A. acetabular region of the pelvis.
B. superior aspect of the femoral head.
C. intertrochanteric region of the femur.
D. epiphyseal region of the femoral head.

C. intertrochanteric region of the femur

In which of the following situations would it NOT be appropriate to splint a patient's fractures before moving him or her?
A. Upset patient with abrasions and capillary bleeding
B. Conscious patient in severe pain with stable vital signs
C. Alert patient

D. Confused patient with tachycardia and shallow breathing

A 30-year-old male fell while rollerblading and landed on his right arm. There is obvious deformity to the elbow and the patient complains of severe pain. The patient's hand is cool and pale and his radial pulse is difficult to palpate. The hospital is ap

D. splint the arm in the position found and then transport immediately

Which of the following muscles is attached to the skeleton and forms the bulk of tissue of the arms and legs?
A. Smooth
B. Skeletal
C. Autonomic
D. Involuntary

B. Skeletal

Which of the following injuries MOST accurately depicts an open fracture?
A. Deformity to the radius and ulna with an overlying healing laceration
B. Swelling and deformity to the tibia with a bulge from the fractured bone
C. Deformity to the midshaft fem

D. Swelling and deformity to the lateral humerus with an overlying abrasion

The primary reason for applying gentle longitudinal traction to a severely angulated tibia is to:
A. determine if there is any crepitation.
B. relieve the muscle spasms that cause pain.
C. facilitate the placement of a standard splint.

Facilitate the placement of a standard splint

When palpating an injured extremity, a patient complains of point tenderness. On the basis of this clinical finding, you:
A. are unable to determine the type of fracture.
B. cannot identify the associated zone of injury.
C. can definitively diagnose an un

A. are unable to determine the type of fracture

The energy needed for muscular contraction is derived from the metabolism of ___________ and results in the production of:
A. oxygen; pyruvic acid.
B. glucose; lactic acid.
C. calcium; pyruvic acid.
D. oxygen; carbon dioxide.

B. glucose; lactic acid

Which of the following describes an injury caused by indirect force?
A. Rupture of the stomach following the blast phase of an explosion
B. Knee striking the dashboard during a car crash and fracturing the patella
C. A fall on an outstretched hand with a

C. A fall on an outstretched hand with a fractured wrist and a dislocated elbow

When assessing a patient who has fractured his or her midshaft clavicle, you should expect to find swelling, point tenderness, and:
A. abduction of the arm.
B. a localized zone of injury.
C. tenting over the fracture site.

tenting over the fracture site.

Which of the following would be the LEAST reliable assessment parameter when determining the neurovascular status of a patient with a possible extremity fracture?
A. Distal motor function
B. Quality of distal pulses
C. Ability to move the extremity

Ability to move the extremity

Appropriate stabilization of an anterior shoulder dislocation includes:
A. pillow or towel under the arm and a sling and swathe.
B. adducting the arm and applying a sling and swathe.
C. internally rotating the arm and applying two swathes.
D. bulky dressi

A. pillow or towel under the arm and a sling and swathe

Articular cartilage functions by:
A. preventing joints from extending beyond their normal range of motion.
B. covering the bone ends and cushioning them from damage and wear.
C. connecting the two bone ends of a joint together and allowing range of motion

B. covering the bone ends and cushioning them from damage and wear

To align a severe deformity associated with a humeral shaft fracture, you should:
A. place one hand above and one hand below the fracture site and apply gentle downward traction.
B. support the fracture site with one hand and apply gentle traction by gras

B. support the fracture site with one hand and apply gentle traction by grasping the humeral co

___________ muscle is a component of body systems, including the digestive and cardiovascular systems.
A. Smooth
B. Striated
C. Voluntary

Smooth

An elderly female with a history of osteoarthritis has sustained an apparent dislocation of her left knee. She is conscious and in severe pain. Her knee is flexed and distal neurovascular functions are grossly intact. When splinting her injury, you should

Keep her knee flexed and apply board splints secured at the hip and ankle.

In addition to providing the framework for the human body, bones also:
A. allow the muscles to contract.
B. produce electrolytes for the body.
C. destroy nonfunctional erythrocytes.
D. produce blood cells in the marrow.

D. produce blood cells in the marrow

A 70-year-old female slipped on a throw rug, but grabbed an adjacent table before she fell to the ground. When assessing her, you should recall that:
A. most mishaps in the elderly patient occur as a result of near syncope.
B. even minor mechanisms of inj

B. even minor mechanisms of injury can result in fractures in the elderly

During a hockey game, a 19-year-old male player was pushed and he landed on his left shoulder. He complains of pain and point tenderness to the area. Your assessment reveals an anterior bulge of the lateral clavicle. This patient has MOST likely experienc

B. acromioclavicular separation

During a track and field event, a 25-year-old female sustained an injury to her left arm. She complains of severe pain and an inability to extend her elbow. Upon inspection, you note that the olecranon process is more prominent than it is on the uninjured

posterior radius/ulna displacement.

When assessing a 40-year-old female with an injury to her left wrist, you should recall that the MOST reliable indicator of an underlying fracture is:
A. ecchymosis.
B. gross swelling.
C. point tenderness.

C. point tenderness

A 34-year-old male twisted his lower leg and ankle while skiing. He complains of severe pain and swelling to the area. When assessing for deformity, you should:
A. gently manipulate the injured limb to elicit crepitus.
B. place heat on his leg to force bl

D. compare the injured extremity to the uninjured extremity

The MOST accurate definition of a fracture is a:
A. crack on the surface of a bone.
B. break in the continuity of a bone.

B. break in the continuity of a bone

When assessing a patient with a scapular fracture, you should also be alert for:
A. a myocardial contusion.
B. fractures of the sacral spine.
C. ribs fractures and a pneumothorax.
D. an associated midshaft clavicular fracture.

C. ribs fractures and a pneumothorax.

When assessing a patient with a grossly deformed humerus, you note that the radial pulse is absent and the extremity is becoming cyanotic. You should:
A. use constant, gentle manual traction to align the humerus.
B. manipulate the humerus until distal cir

A. use constant, gentle manual traction to align the humerus

Which of the following assessment findings would you expect to see in a patient with a posterior hip dislocation and sciatic nerve involvement?
A. Inability to dorsiflex the foot
B. Weak or absent distal pulses
C. Loss of flexion of the knee
D. Hyperactiv

A. Inability to dorsiflex the foot

If your assessment of a patient with a possible musculoskeletal injury reveals no external signs of injury, it would be appropriate to:
A. allow the patient to walk to the ambulance.
B. forgo complete immobilization of the spine.
C. skip your assessment o

D. ask the patient to move each extremity carefully

Joints are bathed and lubricated by:
A. synovial fluid.
B. articular fluid.
C. viscous fluid.
D. sebaceous fluid.

A. synovial fluid

In an average-sized adult male, a closed unilateral femur fracture can result in internal blood loss of up to:
A. 500 mL.
B. 1,000 mL.

B. 1,000 mL

A 34-year-old male experienced an abduction injury to his right arm. He is found in extreme pain, holding his injured arm in a fixed position away from the chest wall. Your assessment reveals a bulge through the pectoralis major muscle and a squared off a

...

Compartment syndrome is caused by:
A. increased pressure in the fascial compartment.
B. excessive synovial fluid inside a joint capsule.
C. hyperperfusion to a fractured upper extremity.
D. lactic acid release in the region of a fracture.

A. increased pressure in the fascial compartment

A patient with a displaced fracture of the proximal femur typically presents with:
A. internal leg rotation, with the injured leg longer than the opposite leg.
B. external leg rotation, with the injured leg shorter than the opposite leg.
C. internal leg r

B. external leg rotation, with the injured leg shorter than the opposite leg

When using a Sager traction splint, you should apply traction that is approximately ____% of the patient's body weight to a maximum of ____ pounds.
A. 5, 10
B. 10, 15
C. 15, 20

B. 10, 15

A 38-year-old female sustained a high-velocity injury to her pelvis. Your assessment reveals severe pain and crepitation upon palpation of the iliac crests. Her blood pressure is 84/54 mm Hg, pulse is 120 and weak, and respirations are 26 breaths/min and

D. immobilizing her spine, applying a pelvic binder device, transporting, and administering 20 mL/kg normal saline boluses en route

In the absence of obvious external trauma, an abdominal injury would be MOST difficult to assess for in a/an:
A. intoxicated patient.
B. unresponsive patient.
C. hypovolemic patient.
D. patient in severe pain .

B. unresponsive patient

The absence of pain when palpating a trauma patient's abdomen does not rule out the possibility of intraabdominal bleeding because:
A. the strong abdominal musculature becomes tense following blunt trauma.
B. most cases of intraabdominal hemorrhage occur

Blood within the peritoneal cavity does not provoke an inflammatory response.

Signs of a ruptured urinary bladder include all of the following, EXCEPT:
A. hematuria.
B. hematemesis.
C. perineal bruising.
D. urethral bleeding.

B. hematemesis

Approximately 80% of all injuries to the genitourinary system involve the:
A. kidneys.
B. bladder.
C. ureters.

A. kidneys

A 29-year-old female had a glass bottle inserted into her vagina during a sexual assault. She is conscious and alert and has stable vital signs, but she is in severe pain. How should you manage this patient?
A. Carefully remove the bottle, monitor her vit

D. Stabilize the bottle with bulky dressings, monitor her vital signs, provide emotional support, and transport promptly

When caring for any patient who was sexually assaulted and experienced injury to the external genitalia, you should:
A. transport only and provide support and reassurance.
B. limit your examination to a secondary assessment only.
C. treat any injuries and

C. treat any injuries and provide privacy and reassurance

Which of the following organs lie in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen?
A. Spleen and liver
B. Pancreas and liver
C. Gallbladder and spleen
D. Liver and gallbladder

D. Liver and gallbladder

Which of the following abdominal organs would cause the MOST profuse bleeding when severely injured?
A. Liver
B. Spleen
C. Pancreas
D. Kidneys

A. Liver

Following blunt trauma to the right flank area, a 20-year-old male presents with hematuria. Assessment of the area reveals pain to palpation, but no visible signs of trauma. His blood pressure is 120/76 mm Hg, pulse is 120 beats/min, and respirations are

D. Two large-bore IVs set at a keep vein open (KVO) rate

Which of the following is the MOST reliable means of assessing the potential for abdominal injuries following a motor-vehicle crash?
A. Asking the patient if he or she was wearing a seatbelt
B. Noting the position of the restraint system on the patient
C.

C. Lifting a deployed airbag and assessing the steering wheel

The kidneys lie within the:
A. left upper quadrant.
B. right upper quadrant.
C. anterior abdomen.
D. retroperitoneal space.

D. retroperitoneal space

A 25-year-old male experienced blunt abdominal trauma and is developing shock. Which of the following signs would you expect to manifest late?
A. Tachycardia
B. Hypotension
C. Restlessness
D. Pale, cool skin

B. Hypotension

Which of the following statements regarding trauma to the kidneys is correct?
A. Injuries confined to the kidneys are common following blunt force trauma.
B. You should suspect a ruptured aorta when the MOI suggests kidney injury.
C. Kidney injury is usua

C. Kidney injury is usually associated with injury to other abdominal organs

Blunt or penetrating trauma can be especially lethal in pregnant patients because the:
A. fetus can sustain serious injury.
B. gravid uterus is highly vascular.
C. uterus descends into the pelvis.

B. gravid uterus is highly vascular

Which of the following mechanisms of injury would MOST likely cause a shearing injury of the bladder from the urethra in a male?
A. Motorcycle crash
B. Blunt trauma to the flank
C. Fall from a significant height
D. Rear-end motor-vehicle crash

A. Motorcycle crash

When assessing a patient who experienced blunt abdominal trauma, you note bruising around the umbilicus. This is called ____________ sign and indicates:
A. Kehr sign; ruptured hollow organs.
B. Grey Turner sign; injury to the liver.
C. Murphy sign; gallbl

D. Cullen sign; significant internal bleeding

A 56-year-old male caught the foreskin of his penis in a long segment of the zipper of his pants. He is in extreme pain, his blood pressure is 150/88 mm Hg, his pulse rate is 120 beats/min and strong, and his respirations are 22 breaths/min with adequate

B. carefully cut the zipper out of the pants, control any bleeding, and transport

While transporting a pregnant trauma patient who is immobilized on a backboard, you note a sudden decrease in her blood pressure and a decrease in her mental status. You should:
A. tilt the backboard to the left.
B. infuse 20 mL/kg of normal saline.
C. el

A. tilt the backboard to the left

During your assessment of a 48-year-old female with localized blunt abdominal trauma, you should:
A. immobilize her spinal column.
B. palpate the most painful area first.
C. be prepared for the patient to vomit.
D. vigorously palpate the entire abdomen.

C. be prepared for the patient to vomit

After applying supplemental oxygen to a patient with blunt abdominal trauma, you should:
A. fully extend the patient's legs.
B. vigorously palpate the abdomen.
C. obtain a set of baseline vital signs.
D. start an IV and give a fluid bolus.

C. obtain a set of baseline vital signs

Kehr sign is defined as:
A. the presence of flank bruising secondary to intraabdominal bleeding.
B. referred pain to the shoulder following injury to the liver or spleen.
C. bruising around the umbilicus secondary to intraabdominal bleeding.

B. referred pain to the shoulder following injury to the liver or spleen

Which of the following seatbelt positions will MOST likely result in severe intraabdominal injuries when a vehicle suddenly decelerates?
A. Shoulder harness and lap belt placed superior to the iliac crest
B. Use of the lap belt only with the shoulder harn

A. Shoulder harness and lap belt placed superior to the iliac crest

In an attempt to minimize the pain associated with abdominal trauma, the patient will typically:
A. draw his or her knees into the abdomen and breathe deeply.
B. take deep breaths to relieve pressure off of the diaphragm.
C. prefer to extend his or her le

D. draw his or her knees into the abdomen and tense the abdominal muscles

Diffuse (global) swelling of the abdomen is MOST suggestive of:
A. acute bowel obstruction.
B. intraabdominal bleeding.
C. peritoneal inflammation.

B. intraabdominal bleeding

In addition to providing 100% oxygen and controlling external bleeding, the MOST appropriate management for a patient with a knife impaled in the abdomen includes:
A. stabilizing the knife in place and infusing crystalloids to maintain adequate perfusion.

A. stabilizing the knife in place and infusing crystalloids to maintain adequate perfusion

Testicular torsion is a/an:
A. life-threatening injury that requires surgery.
B. spontaneous event in the majority of cases.
C. irreversible injury that leads to impotence.
D. time-sensitive injury and requires rapid transport.

D. time-sensitive injury and requires rapid transport

Patients with a significant abdominal injury:
A. have increased pain with movement.
B. develop hypotension as an early sign.
C. most commonly have an injured spleen.
D. become tachycardic after severe blood loss.

A. have increased pain with movement

Priority management for a patient with an amputated penis and stable vital signs includes:
A. locating the amputated part.
B. rapid transport to a trauma center.
C. controlling any active hemorrhage.
D. placing moist dressings on the wound.

C. controlling any active hemorrhage

Blunt abdominal trauma may result in tearing of the mesentery, which is/are:
A. multiple bands of thick muscle that protect the abdominal organs.
B. the main supporting structure of the descending abdominal aorta.
C. a vascular network that provides exclu

D. membranous folds that attach the intestines to the abdominal wall

During a football game, a 16-year-old male was "speared" in the right flank by another player. This mechanism of injury is MOST suggestive of injury to the:
A. liver.
B. kidney.
C. gallbladder.
D. urinary bladder.

B. kidney

Which of the following medications or medical devices may inhibit the body's tachycardic response during shock?
A. Aspirin
B. Anticoagulant
C. Beta-blocker
D. Implanted defibrillator

C. Beta-blocker

A 29-year-old male has sustained a large laceration across the lower abdomen and has a loop of bowel protruding through the wound. To minimize the amount of body heat that radiates from the open wound, you should:
A. irrigate the wound with warm sterile w

B. cover the wound with moist sterile dressings

In addition to controlling bleeding and immobilizing the spine as needed, appropriate care for a patient with a penetrating abdominal wound and signs of shock includes:
A. ensuring adequate ventilation, maintaining adequate perfusion with IV fluids, and t

A. ensuring adequate ventilation, maintaining adequate perfusion with IV fluids, and transporting to the most appropriate facility

Increasing the blood pressure with IV crystalloids in a patient with intraabdominal bleeding would MOST likely:
A. result in clinical improvement.
B. exacerbate the internal bleeding.
C. facilitate the hemostatic process.
D. improve perfusion to vital org

Exacerbate the internal bleeding

The presence of gastric juices and bacteria in the abdominal cavity causes an intense inflammatory reaction called:
A. gastritis.
B. peritonitis.
C. diverticulitis.
D. appendicitis.

B. peritonitis

Just before striking a tree with her car, a 17-year-old female suddenly gasps and holds her breath. What type of injury will she MOST likely experience?
A. Disruption of the great vessels
B. Compression of the myocardium
C. Rupture of the lung parenchyma

C. Rupture of the lung parenchyma

A 54-year-old male impacted the steering wheel with his chest when his truck struck another vehicle head-on. He complains of retrosternal chest pain, dysphagia, and dyspnea. Although his blood pressure is 160/90, his femoral pulses are weakly palpable. Yo

C. traumatic aortic disruption.

Which of the following is a LATE sign of a tension pneumothorax?
A. Contralateral tracheal shift
B. Bulging intercostal muscles
C. Narrowing pulse pressure
D. Profound shortness of breath

A. Contralateral tracheal shift

As the aorta exits the left ventricle, it immediately branches into the:
A. carotid arteries.
B. innominate artery.
C. subclavian arteries.
D. coronary arteries.

D. coronary arteries

The mediastinum encompasses all of the structures within the thoracic cavity, EXCEPT for the:
A. aorta.
B. heart.
C. lungs.
D. vena cavae.

C. lungs

Common clinical findings in a patient with a suspected myocardial contusion include all of the following, EXCEPT:
A. unilaterally diminished or absent breath sounds.
B. tachycardia and a pulse that may be irregular.
C. ecchymosis to the sternum and surrou

Unilaterally diminished or absent breath sounds.

Commotio cordis is a condition in which:
A. immediate cardiac arrest occurs when the chest is impacted during the heart's repolarization period.
B. shearing forces tear the aorta from its point of attachment, resulting in profound intrathoracic hemorrhage

A. immediate cardiac arrest occurs when the chest is impacted during the heart's repolarization period

Which of the following signs or symptoms would you be LEAST likely to find during your assessment of a patient with a pneumothorax?
A. Progressive respiratory difficulty
B. Tachypnea with reduced tidal volume
C. Unilaterally diminished breath sounds
D. Co

D. Contralateral shifting of the trachea

Any injury at the nipple line should be considered a thoracic and abdominal injury because:
A. the liver, spleen, and stomach are completely protected by the ribs.
B. the diaphragm may elevate as high as the nipple line upon exhalation.
C. penetrating inj

B. the diaphragm may elevate as high as the nipple line upon exhalation

When administering IV fluids to a patient with suspected intrathoracic bleeding, it is important to remember that:
A. fluids should be restricted, even in the presence of shock.
B. most patients require up to 2 liters of crystalloid solution.
C. increasin

C. increasing the BP with fluids may increase the bleeding

Which of the following mechanisms of injury is MOST commonly associated with traumatic dissection or rupture of the aorta?
A. Significant falls
B. Penetrating injuries
C. Motorcycle crashes

A. Significant falls

The primary muscle(s) of respiration is/are the:
A. sternocleidomastoid muscle.
B. pectoralis major and diaphragm.
C. diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
D. intercostal muscles and latissimus dorsi.

C. diaphragm and intercostal muscles

Which of the following statements regarding the parietal pericardium is correct?
A. It acutely distends with as little as 500 mL of blood or excess pericardial fluid.
B. It cannot distend acutely but can slowly distend with as much as 1,000 mL of blood.
C

B. It cannot distend acutely but can slowly distend with as much as 1,000 mL of blood.

A 37-year-old male sustained blunt trauma to the left anterolateral chest. He is conscious, but confused, and complains of pain during inspiration; his respirations are shallow. Your assessment reveals crepitus to the area of impact. Breath sounds, althou

B. assist his ventilations with a bag-mask device

A construction worker is pinned in between a truck and a loading dock. He is conscious and in respiratory distress. Further assessment reveals upper torso and facial cyanosis and bilateral conjunctival hemorrhages. When treating this patient, you must:
A.

A. be prepared for severe hypotension once he is freed.

Which of the following chest injuries would be the LEAST likely to present with jugular venous distention?
A. Pericardial tamponade
B. Tension pneumothorax
C. Massive hemothorax

C. Massive hemothorax

A trauma patient who presents with shock, jugular venous distention, and bilaterally equal breath sounds has MOST likely experienced a:
A. simple pneumothorax.
B. pericardial tamponade.
C. pulmonary contusion.
D. massive hemothorax.

B. pericardial tamponade

Chest trauma is a common cause of respiratory acidosis, and rapidly leads to death because the:
A. pH level of the blood increases precipitously.
B. renal system cannot compensate quickly enough.
C. body eliminates CO2 more rapidly than it is produced.
D.

B. renal system cannot compensate quickly enough

Shortly after arriving home from the airport, a 19-year-old male experienced an acute onset of sharp chest pain and difficulty breathing. He denies a history of trauma. Your assessment reveals that he is in moderate distress and is tachycardic. Breath sou

B. spontaneous pneumothorax

What is the rationale for restricting IV fluid boluses in patients with a pulmonary contusion?
A. Pulmonary contusions rarely cause severe hypovolemia.
B. Fluids may cause pulmonary edema or increased bleeding.
C. Rapidly increasing the blood pressure may

B. Fluids may cause pulmonary edema or increased bleeding

A 34-year-old male is in late shock secondary to blunt chest trauma. His respirations of 6 breaths/min and shallow will initially result in:
A. oxygen deficiency and alkalosis.
B. carbon dioxide retention and acidosis.
C. carbon dioxide elimination and de

B. carbon dioxide retention and acidosis.

A 54-year-old male convenience store clerk was shot in the left anterior chest during an attempted robbery. After ensuring that the scene is safe, you enter the store and perform a primary assessment. The patient is semiconscious, is in severe respiratory

B. transport immediately and perform invasive procedures en route

Of the following injuries, which would MOST likely present with muffled heart tones?
A. Myocardial contusion
B. Tension pneumothorax
C. Diaphragmatic injury

Tension Pneumothorax

When percussing the chest of a patient who experienced blunt chest trauma, you note hyperresonance on the left side of his chest. This suggests:
A. blood in the pleural space.
B. alveolar hyperinflation.
C. myocardial compression.
D. air in the pleural sp

D. air in the pleural space

During your rapid assessment of a patient with a gunshot wound to the chest, you located an open wound to the right anterior chest and sealed it with the appropriate dressing. A few minutes later, the patient's respirations are increasingly labored and hi

B. relieve pleural tension by lifting a corner of the dressing.

Visceral injuries in the chest that occur from shearing forces, compression, or rupture, are MOST commonly seen with:
A. blunt chest trauma.
B. projectile injuries.
C. rapid acceleration.
D. penetrating chest trauma.

A. blunt chest trauma

A 37-year-old semiconscious male sustained a stab wound lateral to the left side of the sternum. He presents with signs of shock, engorged jugular veins, and a weakened radial pulse during inspiration. After administering 100% supplemental oxygen, you sho

A. administer 20 mL/kg boluses of an isotonic crystalloid.

Patients with multiple rib fractures may develop significant hypoxia because of a ventilation/perfusion mismatch, which occurs when:
A. vascular disruption severely inhibits the adequate exchange of gases in the lungs.
B. the circulatory system is intact

The circulatory system is intact but the amount of available oxygen is diminished.

During your rapid assessment of a semiconscious 44-year-old female with blunt thoracic trauma, you detect an area on the left anterior chest that bulges during exhalation. Your partner is assisting her ventilations with a bag-mask device and 100% oxygen.

B. stabilize the chest wall deformity and continue your assessment

A 22-year-old male with blunt thoracic trauma presents with severely labored respirations. His level of consciousness is decreased and his heart rate is 140 beats/min and thready. Further assessment reveals absent breath sounds on the entire left side of

C. transport immediately, start a large-bore IV en route, and request a paramedic rendezvous.

Patients with a tension pneumothorax experience a decreased cardiac output and shock secondary to:
A. myocardial compression and decreased preload.
B. massive blood accumulation in the pleural space.
C. decreased intrathoracic pressure and increased prelo

...

Which of the following MOST accurately describes the pathophysiology of a pneumothorax?
A. Accumulation of blood or other fluid in the pleural space
B. Intrapulmonary pressure secondary to pleural compression
C. Intrapleural pressure with progressive pulm

C. Intrapleural pressure with progressive pulmonary collapse

Which of the following statements regarding the lung parenchyma is correct?
A. It is covered by the visceral pleura.
B. It is encased in the parietal pleura.
C. It is composed of three lobes on the left.

A. It is covered by the visceral pleura.

In contrast to paradoxical chest motion, asymmetrical chest movement occurs when:
A. both sides of the chest move shallowly during normal breathing.
B. one side of the chest fails to move normally during inspiration.
C. both sides of the chest wall move i

...

Which of the following potentially lethal chest injuries would you be the LEAST likely to detect during the primary assessment?
A. Flail chest
B. Cardiac tamponade
C. Bronchial disruption
D. Pulmonary contusion

D. Pulmonary contusion

Regardless of the cause, hyperventilation causes:
A. respiratory alkalosis.
B. metabolic acidosis.
C. metabolic alkalosis.

A. respiratory alkalosis.'

Following a motor-vehicle crash in which his truck struck a utility pole, a 56-year-old male complains of pain to the mid-chest and difficulty breathing. Your assessment reveals an ecchymotic area over the mid-sternum. His blood pressure is 110/70 mm Hg,

A. supplemental oxygen and a large-bore IV set to keep the vein open

A 40-year-old male experienced penetrating trauma to the left anterior chest. During inhalation, you note that his radial pulses become barely palpable. You should suspect:
A. aortic disruption.
B. cardiac tamponade.
C. myocardial contusion.

B. cardiac tamponade.

When caring for a patient with significant thoracic trauma and signs of shock, it is MOST important to:
A. establish two large-bore IV lines.
B. transport promptly to a trauma center.
C. perform a detailed secondary assessment.
D. administer high-flow oxy

B. transport promptly to a trauma center

You are performing a rapid assessment on a 30-year-old male who was involved in a motor-vehicle crash. The patient is conscious, but restless. He complains of difficulty breathing and chest pain. Your assessment reveals diminished breath sounds in the lef

B. Simple pneumothorax

Which of the following statements regarding blunt chest trauma is correct?
A. Blunt chest trauma usually occurs during the tertiary phase of a blast injury.
B. The force from blunt chest wall trauma is usually confined to a small area.
C. Fractured ribs c

C. Fractured ribs can tear the lung parenchyma or other vital intrathoracic organs.

A 29-year-old male was robbed and struck in the chest by an assailant with a steel pipe. Your assessment reveals severe pain and crepitus to the right upper chest, at and below the clavicle. What is MOST significant about the location of this patient's in

C. Because they are protected by the bony girdle of the clavicle and scapula, upper rib fractures may indicate severe internal injuries.

The presence of a scaphoid abdomen and bowel sounds in the lower hemithorax are MOST suggestive of a:
A. pneumothorax.
B. perforated lung.
C. perforated bowel.
D. ruptured diaphragm.

D. ruptured diaphragm

Common signs of a chest injury include all of the following, EXCEPT:
A. hyperpnea.
B. tachycardia.
C. hemoptysis.
D. hypotension.

A. hyperpnea

Unilaterally diminished or absent breath sounds, a narrowed pulse pressure, and dullness to percussion of the hemithorax are clinical findings suggestive of a:
A. hemothorax.
B. tension pneumothorax.
C. pericardial tamponade.

Hemothorax

When treating a patient with a suspected myocardial contusion, it is especially important to monitor the patient for:
A. evidence of pulmonary edema.
B. a heart rate that exceeds 90/min.
C. distention of the jugular veins.

A. evidence of pulmonary edema

When treating a patient with a suspected diaphragmatic rupture, you should:
A. apply 100% oxygen with a nonrebreathing mask.
B. avoid administering more than 500 mL of crystalloid.
C. avoid placing the patient in a Trendelenburg position.

C. avoid placing the patient in a Trendelenburg position.

Fracture of the first and second ribs following severe blunt trauma would MOST likely result in a:
A. massive hemothorax.
B. myocardial contusion.
C. tracheobronchial injury.
D. pericardial tamponade.

C. tracheobronchial injury

The esophagus enters the thorax via the thoracic inlet and travels:
A. through the anterior thorax.
B. through the posterior thorax.
C. lateral to the lung parenchyma.

B. through the posterior thorax.

A 31-year-old man was stabbed in the chest during an altercation at a bar. He is semiconscious and has shallow breathing. As your partner assists the patient's ventilations, you perform a rapid assessment and find a single stab wound to the left anterior

B. cover the wound with an occlusive dressing and continue your assessment

A trauma patient complains of pain to the costovertebral angle. The organ(s) MOST likely injured is/are the:
A. liver
B. bladder
C. spleen
D. kidneys

kidneys pg.291

A patient with a core body temperature of 85F would be expected to present with:
A. profoundly slow respirations
B. deep, rapid respirations
C. confusion or lethargy
D. uncontrolled shivering

profoundly slow respirations pg.1378

The process of removing dirt, dust, blood, or other visible contaminants from a surface or equipment is called:
A. high-level disinfection
B. cleaning
C. disinfection
D. sterilization

cleaning pg.1629

Following administration of an amiodarone bolus, your paramedic partner begins a continuous infusion. This is necessary in order to:
A. decrease the therapeutic index of the medication
B. ensure clearance of the drug from the body
C. maintain a therapeuti

maintain a therapeutic blood level of the drug pg.642

A liquid mixture of one or more substances that cannot be separated by filtering or allowing the mixture to stand is called a(n):
A. suspension
B. solution
C. syrup
D. emulsion

solution pg.557

During a hockey game, a 19-year-old male player was pushed and he landed on his left shoulder. He complains of pain and point tenderness to the area. Your assessment reveals an anterior bulge of the lateral clavicle. This patient has MOST likely experienc

acromioclavicular separation pg.1348

Following the administration of one tube of oral glucose, your 20-year-old female diabetic patients condition markedly improves. You should:
A. administer 25 mL of D50 via IV push and transport promptly
B. avoid giving further glucose in order to avoid hy

transport her to the hospital and reassess her blood sugar en route pg.930

A patient has a gunshot wound to the left side of the chest. How should you describe the anatomic location of the injury?
A. Inferoposterior
B. Anteromedial
C. Anterolateral
D. Inferolateral

Anterolateral pg.160

A hemostatic agent is useful in controlling external bleeding because:
A. it causes enhanced clot formation at the wound site
B. it stops the bleeding faster than a proximal tourniquet
C. it constricts the blood vessels to stop the bleeding
D. the gauze i

it causes enhanced clot formation at the wound site pg.1113

A patient who presents with hypotension, jugular venous distention, and a rapid irregular pulse should be suspected of experiencing:
A. distributive shock
B. neurogenic shock
C. hypovolemic shock
D. obstructive shock

obstructive shock pg.665

Blood enters the right atrium through the:
A. left and right coronary arteries
B. coronary artery and foramen ovale
C. vena cavae and coronary sinus
D. foramen ovalis and vena cavae

vena cavae and coronary sinus pg.806

The ________, which is present wherever a nerve cell terminates, connects to the next cell via _________.
A. axon, catecholamines
B. synapse, neurotransmitters
C. dendrite, nerve fibers
D. neuron, catecholamines

synapse, neurotransmitters pg.850

A fracture of the orbital bone is commonly referred to as a:
A. blowout fracture
B. midface fracture
C. Le Fort fracture
D. basilar fracture

blowout fracture pg.241

A biphasic response to an antigen occurs when:
A. there is no acute response but a delayed response hours later
B. the acute response is rapidly corrected by the immune system
C. the acute response is sustained despite appropriate care
D. an acute respons

an acute response is followed later by a delayed response pg.956

All of the following are facial bones, EXCEPT the:
A. maxilla
B. palatine
C. lacrimal
D. parietal

parietal pg.240

All of the following signs are indicative of upper airway burns due to an inhalation injury, EXCEPT:
A. dyspnea and hypoxia
B. wheezing or rhonchi
C. carbonaceous sputum
D. an altered mental status

wheezing or rhonchi pg.1150

An anion is an:
A. ion with an overall positive charge.
B. electrolyte with a neutral charge.
C. ion with both a negative and positive charge.
D. ion with an overall negative charge.

ion with an overall negative charge pg.590

When caring for a patient with a behavioral crisis, you should ensure your own safety, and then:
A. apply oxygen with a nonrebreathing mask
B. determine if the patient is seeing a psychiatrist
C. frisk the patient for dangerous weapons
D. identify any lif

identify any life-threatening conditions pg.1014

When evaluating the mechanism of injury of a car-versus-pedestrian collision, you should first:
A. evaluate the vehicle that struck the patient for structural damage
B. determine if the patient was propelled away from the vehicle
C. approximate the speed

approximate the speed of the vehicle that struck the pedestrian pg.1072

Appropriate management for a conscious adult patient with acute abdominal pain, a BP of 80/50 mm Hg, and a pulse rate of 120 beats/min includes:
A. elevating the lower extremities 12 to 15 inches
B. IV fluid boluses as needed to maintain perfusion
C. incr

IV fluid boluses as needed to maintain perfusion pg.899

Insulin maintains homeostasis by:
A. converting glycogen to glucose.
B. facilitating cellular glucose uptake.
C. causing the cells to produce glucose.
D. increasing blood glucose circulation.

facilitating cellular glucose uptake pg.913

In which of the following patients would it be MOST appropriate to administer oral glucose?
A. stroke patient with a depressed swallowing mechanism
B. conscious patient with a blood glucose level of 70 mg/dL
C. unresponsive patient with adequate ventilato

confused diabetic patient who is breathing adequately pg.929

Which of the following factors would have the least effect on a 75-year-old patients vital signs?
A. medical conditions
B. medications
C. overall health
D. increased weight

increased weight pg.380

In the absence of obvious external trauma, an abdominal injury would be MOST difficult to assess for in a(n):
A. patient in severe pain
B. unresponsive patient
C. intoxicated patient
D. hypovolemic patient

unresponsive patient pg.1293

Which of the following causes of an acute abdomen would be LEAST likely to present with fever?
A. acute pancreatitis secondary to an infectious process
B. appendicitis prior to rupture and abscess formation
C. acute cholecystitis caused by the presence of

appendicitis prior to rupture and abscess formation pg.888

Which of the following statements regarding methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is correct?
A. studies have shown that less than 1% of health care providers are MRSA carriers
B. MRSA is a bacterium that causes infections and is resistant to

MRSA is a bacterium that causes infections and is resistant to most antibiotics pg.745

Heatstroke occurs when the:
A. body is subjected to more heat than it can remove
B. hypothalamus produces excessive body heat
C. patients core body temperature gradually rises
D. process of thermogenesis is rendered ineffective

body is subjected to more heat than it can remove pg.1387

Normal" behavior is basically classified as what:
A. is agreed upon by psychiatrists
B. the patient perceives
C. is acceptable by society
D. your protocols dictate

is acceptable by society pg.1009

Cellular ischemia results in anaerobic metabolism. What occurs during this process?
A. postcapillary sphincters dilate, causing a release of CO2 from the cells
B. blood stagnates in the capillaries and lactic acid is produced
C. lactic acid is rapidly pro

blood stagnates in the capillaries and lactic acid is produced pg.661

Which of the following activities occurs in the warm zone?
A. command
B. decontamination
C. medical monitoring
D. personnel staging

decontamination pg.1675

To minimize the risk of injuring yourself when lifting or moving a patient, you should:
A. use a direct carry whenever possible
B. avoid the use of log rolls or body straps
C. keep the weight as close to your body as possible
D. flex at the waist instead

keep the weight as close to you body as possible pg.187

The decline in cardiac function that commonly occurs in late adulthood is MOST often related to:
A. atherosclerosis
B. hypotension
C. medication use
D. kidney failure

atherosclerosis pg.380

An ectopic pregnancy occurs when an ovum develops:
A. within the abdominal cavity
B. inside one of the ovaries
C. late in the womans cycle
D. outside of the uterus