Introduction to Sociology - Unit 2 Milestone

What is the primary basis for cultural transmission that enables us to share beliefs and perspectives from one generation to the next?

Language and symbols

According to conflict theory, why do high-status, white collar criminals sometimes receive special treatment, including less-severe sentences, than people of lower socioeconomic status?

They possess the resources necessary to avoid the deviant labels.

Tim, a U.S. citizen, visits Spain. He is used to having dinner at 7 PM, but most Spanish people eat later, at 9 or 10 PM. Tim realizes that eating later makes sense in the Spanish culture, so it is not "wrong."Tim uses which of the following perspectives on culture?

Cultural relativism

Which of the following statements about sociobiology is true?

Sociobiology examines the biological factors that shape culture.

Which of the following is the second stage in the process of sociocultural evolution?

Horticulture and pastoralism

Supporters of __________ argue that it is a way to acknowledge and capitalize on a nation's increasing diversity.

multiculturalism

Taken together, what do feminist theories of deviance assert about why women are labeled as deviant more often than men?

Women have been subject to control by men. Because they have had less power to label behavior as deviant, they have been labeled as deviant more often than men.

What is the difference between real and ideal culture?

Real culture describes how people behave. Ideal culture describes a culture's positive image of itself.

Who was Edwin Sutherland?

A sociologist and criminologist who theorized differential association

Jack and Sherry argue about deviance among the youth of different races. Jack believes that poor African-American youth may "act out" in deviant ways because they cannot achieve cultural goals, including wealth and success, by conventional means (e.g., through a college education and a good job).Jack's comments best illustrate which of the following theories of deviance?

Strain theory

One justification for punishing criminals is that fear of punishment will prevent people from breaking the law.This is known as __________.

deterrence

Which of the following statements does NOT accurately describe the social foundations of deviance?

People are perceived as deviant when they view their own behavior as deviant.

Which of the following was NOT a core American value identified by Robin Williams Jr.?

Religion and faith

Which of the following terms describes how the introduction of new technology in society can cause parts of a culture to change at different rates?

Cultural lag

Which of the following is NOT considered to be a crime against the person?

Burglary and vandalism of a convenience store

Which of the following is an area of focus for the labeling theory of deviance?

All of the answer choices are correct.

Which of the following terms describes crimes committed by people of relatively-high social standing while doing their jobs?

White collar crime

Which of the following is an example of a community-based correction?

Parole

The communist party, feminist political parties, the Tea Party, and the hippies of the 1960s are all examples of which of the following?

Counterculture

Ben no longer believes in the legitimacy of the authority and power figures in his life. According to control theory, he is now more likely to act out in deviant ways.According to control theory, which of the following forces of control no longer restrains Ben's behavior?

Belief

After moving to a new school, Anthony wants to join a new group of friends. He notices that the people he sits with at lunch on the first day of class use words in ways that are new to him (e.g., they say "bad" to mean "good"). They also shake hands in a unique way. Trying to fit in, Anthony adopts these subcultural behaviors.Anthony attempts to learn the __________ of the group.

folkways

Eric is an anthropologist who is studying semi-nomadic sheep herding societies in Mongolia. Eric notices that all the shepherds wear a red pendant around their necks. The pendant is believed to have religious significance.The red pendant is an example of __________.

material culture