Test #2: Terminology, Cyst Structure

Echogenic

A structure that produces echos

Anechoic/Sonolucent

echo free, without internal echoes

Isoechoic

two structures of equal echo density

Echopenic

few echoes within a structure

Hyperechoic

echoes brighter than surrounding tissues. Considered very echogenic

Hypoechoic

echoes not as bright as surrounding tissues

homogeneous

imaged tissues of equal intensity / echogenicity

heterogeneous

imaged tissue echoes with different echo texture and/or mix of characteristics

Through Transmission / Posterior Enhancement

increased echogenicity posterior to a structure

Attenuates

weakening of sound as it travels through a medium, the more solid a structure the more sound will be attenuated

Texture

predicted echo pattern within an organ, consistent with most people

parenchyma

overall textural appearance of an organ and the pathological changes that may be present

Pathology

the structural and functional manifestations of disease

focal

localized parenchymal changed found in one specific area

diffuse

parenchymal changes spread throughout an organ

mass

a localized (focal) change in parenchyma

neoplasm

general term to describe any new growth, benign or malignant

Septation

a thin membranous inclusion (enclosed) within a cyst

Shadowing

failure of sound to pass through a medium or no echoes are reflected back from the area that is posterior to the structure because the structure has absorbed and reflected all the sound back to the transducer

Pancreas, Spleen, Liver, Renal Cortex, Gallbladder

Hyperechoic to Hypoechoic

Cyst

0

Solid

0

Cecum, appendix, most of ileum, inferior part of ascending colon, right ovary, right uterine tube, right ureter, right spermatic cord

Right Lower Quadrant

Right lobe of liver, gallbladder, pylorus, first three parts of the duodenum, head of pancreas, right adrenal gland, right kidney, right hepatic flexure, superior part of ascending colon, right half of transverse colon

Right Upper Quadrant

Sigmoid colon, inferior part of descending colon, left ovary, left uterine tube, left ureter, left spermatic cord

Left Lower Quadrant

Left lobe of the liver, spleen, most of stomach, jejunum and proximal ileum, body and tail of pancreas, left adrenal gland, left kidney, left splenic flexure, superior part of descending colon, left half of transverse colon

Left Upper Quadrant

1. Echogenic; echoes will increase with increased gain2. Solid masses can have regular or irregular borders3. Posterior enhancement or shadowing* solid masses can be benign or malignant** shadowing can occur with both benign and malignant pathology, must know what you looking at.

Solid Structure

1. Has both cystic and solid characteristics2. Through transmission / Acoustic enhancement (because of cystic component)Will be considered either primarily solid or primarily cystic

Complex structure

1. Anechoic, lack of internal echoes even with increased gain2. Smooth, well defined borders (even if lobulated)3. Sharply defined posterior wall because of interface of fluid4. Through transmission because surrounding tissue attenuates more sound than cyst

Cystic Structure

dorsal cavity

includes the cranial and spinal cavities.

ventral cavity

thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity

serous membrane

lubricates the surfaces of membranes and allows organs to move without friction

parietal layer

lines the internal surface of the body wall

visceral layer

covers an organ