the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Psychology is a SCIENCE because its conclusions arebased on
What is the "empirical" method for acquiring knowledge?
method for acquiring knowledge based on observation, including experimentation, rather than a method based only on forms of logical argument or previous authorities
Why do we need scientific research in psychology?
research answers the questions about the behavior and mental processes
tend to believe, after learning about an outcome that we could have foreseen
tendency to seek out and remember evidence that confirms existing belief while ignoring evidence that contradicts it
The availability heuristic
mental shortcut in which we estimate how likely or common a particular event or outcome based on how easily examples of it come to mind
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
What is the "Mozart Effect"?
if children and babies listen to music by Mozart they will become smarter
What are the three main components of the "scientific attitude"?
skepticism, curiosity, humility
solve problems, use knowledge
masking discoveries, build knowledge
false all psychologists don't diagnose and treat mental illness
How do psychiatrists differ from clinical psychologists?
treat psychical psychological disorders/ counseling & therapy, teach or conduct research
work with relatively healthy people, clients problems are less severe than those who seek help from clinical psychologists
assist with curriculum design, teacher training, or health psychologies
factors that influence health & illness
benefits involving sports participation
determine competence, jury selection, expert testimony
Design of machines and/or work settings("human factors"), Selection and appraisal of employees, Improvement of satisfaction, productivity, and/or leadership
What are the three "goals" of scientific research in psychology?
description, prediction, explanation
There are two important "functions" of a scientific theory—what are they?
explains past observations, predicts future observations
What do we mean by the term "falsifiable"? Why must theories be falsifiable?
possible to conceive observable evidence that would contradict theory
A good theory generates testable predictions that we call
What is an operational definition? Why are operational definitions important?
carefully describe how to measure or manipulate variables in a study, able to replicate study
What is naturalistic observation?
researchers observe and record how people/animals behave in naturally occurring environments and situations
What is "reactivity," and why is it a problem for researchers?
study of variables affecting productivity, Hawthorne effect (alteration of a behavior study due to being aware)
overall group of individuals that the researchers are interested in
subset of individuals selected from the larger population
What is "random sampling"?Why is it so important in survey research?
subset of a larger population in which every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected
observational research study focusing on one or a few people
What are the strengths and weaknesses of case studies?
unusual, only way to study particular phenomenon/ may not generalize, can't identify cause effect relationships
Correlational research helps psychologists accomplish the goal of
having relationships between two variables
What is a"correlation coefficient"?
numerical expression of strength & type of relationships between variables
no relationship exsists
What are the "bidirectionality" and "third variable"problems?
correlation doesn't imply causation
Experimentationhelps psychologists accomplish the goal of
revealing evidence of cause and effect
Why are experiments able to tell us about cause-and-effect relationships?
rules out alternative explanations
Researchers use "______________ ______________" to minimize preexisting differences between the control and experimental groups.
What is an "independent variable"?
variable that is influenced or controlled by the experimenter
group designed to answer the research question
serves as a basis for comparison and controls for chance factors that might influence the results of the study
What is a "dependent variable"?
variable that the researcher measures to see how much effect the independent variable had
What is a "confounding variable"?
unanticipated outside factor that affects both variables of interest
What is the "double-blind procedure," and how does it help researchers control forthe effects of participants' and experimenters' expectations?
experiment in which both the researchers and participants are blind to group assignments
people's expectations or beliefs influencing or determining their experience in a given situation
What ethical issues must be considered when conducting research on human participants?
protection from harm, voluntary participation, informed consent
What is "informed consent"? What is "debriefing"?
process of informing a research participant about what to expect during an assignment, experiment involving deception
What is an "institutional review board
committee of administrators, scientists, veterinarians, and community members that reviews proposals for research involving non-human animals
What is the difference between "monism" and "dualism"?
inseparable, mind & body are separate
What happens if the motor cortex is stimulated? What about the somatosensory cortex?
movement of body parts, sensation of touch in body parts
Stimulation of the motor cortex in your right hemisphere would produce movement on which side of your body?
Together, your brain and spinal cord make up your __________ nervous system.
What is a "neuron"?
cells responsible for receiving sensory input from the outside world
Neurons that carry information from the body to the brain are ________ neurons.
Neurons that carry commands from the brain to the body are ________ neurons.
Neurons that process information within the central nervous system are _______.
Cell body ("soma")
integrates information received from other neurons
receives messages from other neurons
sends messages to other neurons
tip" of axon that forms connections with dendrites.
insulating material that facilitates neural communication
What is a neuron's "membrane potential"?
difference in charge inside vs outside membrane
What is the relationship between membrane potential and resting potential?
neurons membrane when it's not receiving input from other neurons
An action potential is generated whenever a neuron's membrane potential reaches a specific value that is known as its "__________ of excitation.
At any moment, any given neuron is receiving many incoming "signals" from other neurons. How do "excitatory" signals differ from "inhibitory" signals?
membrane potential becomes less negative, membrane potential becomes more negative
What is an action potential?
spike in membrane potential traveling down an axon
The action potential is "propagated" down the length of a neuron's axon, until it reaches points of nearcontact—called "___________"—with other neurons.
When the action potential reaches this point of near contact, the neuron releases chemical molecules called ___________.
These molecules bind to locations on the receiving neuron called ___________.
After being released, these molecules are taken back by the sending neuron through a process known as ___________.
If a behavior causes the release of dopamine in (or near) an animal's hypothalamus, then what is likely to happen to the frequency with which the animal performs this behavior?
decrease in movement, learning, attention, and emotion
What do we mean when we say a drug is an "agonist" versus an "antagonist"?
drugs that increase effects, drugs that decrease effects
If a drug inhibits the reuptake of a certain neurotransmitter, then that drug would be classified as an ___________.
If a drug blocks the receptors for a certain neurotransmitter, then that drug would be classified as an ___________.
What is the endocrine system?
a chemical communication system that controls many body functions
What two structures in the endocrine system are most responsible for the release of hormones?What is the relationship between these two structures?
nervous/immune system, helps body cope with different events and stresses
examine behavior after they cause damage to the brain
record electrical changes that occur as neurons generate action potentials
Positron emission tomography (PET)
which region is more active and using the most glucose
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
produces high quality images of brains structure
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
mri with most brain activity involving oxygen
How do fraternal (or "dizygotic") twins differ from identical (or "monozygotic") twins?
fraternal- 2 fertilized eggsidentical- 1 fertilized egg
What is meant by the phrase "localization of function" when it comes to the brain?
different tasks more/less use of brain parts
How did "phrenology" contributeto this idea?
involved measuring personality based on bumps and dents in the skull
balance; inhibition of motor neurons during REM sleep
sensory switchboard"(directs sensory information to other regions)
coordinated movement; nonverbal forms of learning and memory
formation of long-term memories
expression and detection of emotion, especially angerand fear
controls pituitary gland; involved in reward, feeding, fight/flight
What is the "cerebral cortex"?
outermost layer that covers 2 hemispheres
What are the four "lobes" of the cerebral cortex, and where are they located?
frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
Which lobe contains the "motor cortex"?
Which lobe contains the "somatosensory cortex"?
Which lobe contains the "visual cortex"?
Which lobe contains the "auditory cortex"?
Where is Broca's area, and what is disrupted when this area is damaged?
impaired speech production, comprehension is intact
Where is Wernicke's area, and what is disrupted when this area is damaged?
production of meaningless speech
What is "aphasia"?
inability to produce speech
What is the "corpus callosum"?
enables communication between hemispheres
What is a "split-brain" patient?
sever the hemispheres no longer share info.
How have split-brain patients helped us understand"lateralization
left- verbal info., calculationright- visual, spatial